What the equipment for Voelkerball needs

Explanation of the rules of the game of dodgeball, decision aids and interpretation criteria for dodgeball referees


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2 Explanation of the rules of the game of dodgeball Decision-making aids and interpretation criteria for dodgeball referees Basic rule from 1987 and changes until 2009 These explanations of the rules of the game of dodgeball were drawn up on March 16/17, 2001 in the gymnastics school of the Westphalian Gymnastics Association with the student councils of the state associations of Lower Saxony, Saarland and Westphalia. They should serve as decision-making aids for all referees and interested friends of the dodgeball game. The idea of ​​playing dodgeball can be cultivated as a purposeless, carefree game, but also as a team game under tournament conditions. A team consists of 12 players. The rectangular playing field, which should be surrounded by a free space, is divided into two halves in the middle by a center line. Each team tries to throw off the players of the opposing team. The game is played according to sets. A set ends when one team has thrown off all players on the other team. The team that won two sets won. Contents 1. Field of play Ball Team Elections Throwing Throwing Ball Scoring Referee

3 1. Playing field: 1.1 The playing field is a rectangle 18 m long and 9 m wide, the boundaries of which are determined by lines on the floor. Most gyms have a playing field of the required size (volleyball field). In sports halls, the playing fields are marked out and must be made visible with adhesive strips. (See also 1.1.2) If the referee is unable to see the lines, he has to record this on the game sheet. The organizer must be advised to bring the lines into a tidy condition. The playing field is divided into 2 team fields (9 x 9 m) by a center line. For age groups up to 13 years of age, the baseline is moved forward to 7 m. For the so-called mini-teams (up to 10 years of age) the shortening of the playing fields is certainly necessary. Experience shows that young people up to the age of 13 do not want the playing fields to be made smaller. A change requires the approval of all club representatives (team supervisors). All lines must be clearly marked on the floor. They must be at least 3 cm, but not wider than 5 cm. Sticky adhesive strips are permitted. For explanation, see The baseline and side lines belong to the playing field, the center line to both team fields together. The side lines are to be extended at both ends by at least 100 cm beyond the base line. This means that all players who are in the team fields are allowed to enter all lines, but are not allowed to cross them. Trespassing is also given if a player slips over a line while catching or throwing or touches the opposing playing field with her hand or another part of the body. This also means that the baseline belongs to the opposing playing field and cannot be entered by a player behind the baseline. The extended side lines mark the indication and throwing area and are only intended to avoid advantages for the players behind the baseline when throwing. You may enter them while throwing, but not trespass them. If 3

4 the ball is played correctly over the baseline, the ball remains behind the baseline, regardless of whether the ball is caught or ricochets off the wall. Crossing the extended sideline when catching is not a mistake. The back area consists of the indication and throwing area and the lateral spaces behind the baseline. Only active players are allowed to stay in the back area. For safety reasons, it is essential to ensure that the entire back area is kept clear of inactive players. A person who is hit by a ball in an uncontrolled and unexpected manner can be seriously injured. 1.2 Behind each baseline and next to the side lines there should be a free space of 2 m. 1.3 Spectators are to be kept 4 m away from the boundaries of the playing field if possible. Rules 1.2 and 1.3 cannot be observed in small halls. Therefore, you can still play in small halls. 2. Ball: 2.1 The dodgeball is a hollow ball with a soft cover. (yellow suede ball) It must be inflated evenly round and tight. At the start of the game, it must have a weight of 320 to 380 grams and a circumference of 62 to 68 cm (student ball weight 280 to 300 grams and circumference 62 to 68 cm). Before the start of the game, the referee checks that the ball is playable. To avoid injury, it should not be inflated too hard. At the moment all teams are playing with the same ball. If the teams have different opinions about the hardness of the ball, the referee decides as the sole responsible party. If a ball has already been released for play and a team captain complains about the ball pressure, the referee can change the ball pressure. 4th

2.2 The organizing club (organizer) provides the ball. The club that organizes the games (championship or tournaments) must provide the ball. One ball each if there are several playing fields. 3. Team: 3.1 Each team consists of 12 players, 7 field players, 1 ground line player and 4 substitutes who must be entered on the score sheet at the start of the game. Before the start of the game, the referee counts the players on the field of play. There may be 7 players per team in the field. Another player is the baseline player in the information room. A team may use a maximum of 12 players during the entire game (possibly three sets). If a team uses 13 or more players, the game will be counted as lost, as in the case of no-shows (Item 8.3 Rules of the Game). As the rules of the game already state, at least 6 players must be on the field at the start of the game. (This of course also includes the baseline player.) If a team appears with only 5 gullies at the scheduled time, the referee has to wait 15 minutes. After that, the game will be counted as not started. (See point 8.3) If a team with 6 players starts, one of whom is injured in the first set, the game will be played to the end with 5 players. (This also applies to the remaining sentences.) If a team with fewer than 8 players starts, a player who comes later can come into play during the next interruption in the game. It is important for the referee that the passport has been checked beforehand and that the player is entered on the match sheet, otherwise the player can only be used in the next set after the passport has been checked. An attacking game by the opponent must not be interrupted in order to allow a player who is late to enter the game. For example, if a player from team A arrives later and team A is in possession of the ball, the referee can stop the game immediately. There is no disadvantage to the opponent if the game is interrupted. 5

6 3.2 A player is the team captain. She is the sole spokesperson for the team. It is to be identified in this capacity. The team leader must be identified with an armband. She must be involved in the respective sentence and notify the referee of any objections or protests. The referee, for his part, settles disagreements or problems with the team captain. If the team captain drops out due to injury, another player takes over her task. It must also be marked and subsequently entered on the score sheet. 3.3 Each team enters the games in proper playing attire that is uniform in shape and color. If a team competes in different uniforms, the referee has to ask the team to take remedial action via the team captain. If both teams have jerseys of the same color, they should be changed if possible. This is to be recorded in the game report. In the event of repetition, a fine may be levied. Any aids that encourage catching and throwing are prohibited. Favorable aids such as grease, wax, resins, gloves or the like are not permitted. Measures that serve the health of a player (e.g. elastic wraps, tape and plasters) are unaffected. 3.4 If a player is eliminated due to injury without having been thrown off, a substitute may be substituted on after prior notification to the referee. The substitute must be entered on the match report. If a player has to leave the field of play due to an injury (including a head hit), she may be replaced by a substitute who must be entered on the score sheet. A player who leaves the field of play due to an injury without having been replaced by a substitute may return to the field of play during the current set at the next interruption in play. At the end of the game, only the players remaining on the field are counted. 3.5 The baseline player must enter the team field when there are only 2 players left in the team field. 6th

7 The baseline player can leave the baseline when a discarded field player has taken her position. During the change of the baseline player, the game is paused. The change is to be reported to the referee by a show of hands. The correct substitution of the baseline player is the responsibility of the referees, but also of the teams themselves. If, for whatever reason, the substitution of the baseline player is forgotten, the set will be canceled and rescheduled because it was a mistake by the referee. 3.6 The baseline player must be dressed in a jersey of the same pattern, but a different color, or a different colored overcoat. The baseline player must be dressed in the same but different colored jersey. The baseline player is often replaced by the teams from set to set. In order to avoid repeated swapping of the jersey, a colored over-vest, possibly also a sash, is allowed. 4. Elections: 4.1 Before the start of the game, the referee and the two team captains draw the lots. The winner chooses the team field and her team has the first throw. In the second sentence, the opposing team has the right to vote. The third set will be drawn anew. To avoid disadvantages (e.g. exposure to sunlight), winning the choice may be an advantage. After changing the right to vote in the 2nd set to the other team, the possible 3rd set will be drawn again in order to maintain equal opportunities for both teams. Aid to the choice can be a tossed coin or a two-colored plate. 5. Throwing: 5.1 The game begins when the baseline player is thrown across the opposing team field to her own team. After two rallies (baseline - team, team baseline), it may be thrown. The opponent must not interfere with the start-up. 7th

8 In order to get the players in the mood for the game and to rule out unexpected throws, the two throw-offs must not be disturbed and must be carried out correctly. In the event of possible disruptions, the start-up must be repeated until the game can start according to the rules of the game. 5.2 The shock throw (hip throw) is prohibited in the youth area. The hip throw in the youth sector, which has been forbidden for years, is as good as taboo. Many players in the women's class have also happily switched. Only a few players who have been playing for several years still practice the hip throw. In order not to exclude these players, the hip throw is still tolerated. The referee should ensure that young players in the women's class do not take the hip throw. The hip throw is a poorly controllable throw and can result in significant injuries. 6. Throwing: 6.1 Throwing is allowed from the team field and from the baseline. Valid hits can only be scored from the playing field and the throwing area (behind the baseline). When throwing (throwing in general), it must be ensured that the field boundaries (lines) are not crossed or that a player behind the baseline is not allowed to enter. (See also 1.1.3) After a goalkeeper throw, the game can be continued from the center line as well as from the baseline. A free throw is not permitted. This rule is included because in the area of ​​the Lower Saxony Gymnastics Federation, contrary to the rules of the game in the DTB, free throws are played. This is not the right place to judge the pros and cons. In any case, referees and teams should know that regional games in Lower Saxony are played with free throws. If a player runs out of the team field, she can also be thrown outside the field. See 6.3 f. 8

9 6.2 A player who has been thrown off must leave the team field via her own touchline. She goes to the baseline and can continue to participate in the game from here. Discarded players continue to play behind the baseline. For tactical reasons (game variants) a strong, well-staffed baseline is advantageous. 6.3 A fault is: a.) If a player drops the ball coming from the opponent while catching it or is hit on the body and the ball then hits the ground. The team from which a player is thrown takes possession of the ball. Basically, a mistake means a rally. Exceptions to this are valid hits and a head hit. A hit is only valid if the ball hits the ground after the hit. At this point, it is particularly pointed out that only clear hits should be displayed as errors. Of course, a grazing shot can also be a clear hit. It is always important that the ball has touched the ground after the hit. It is also important to recognize whether a ball has been brought under control (safely caught) by a player. If a ball is not caught properly and falls to the ground after grabbing it several times, it is a mistake. If a hit is not clearly visible (catching the ball and simultaneous contact with the ground), a decision must be made in favor of the player. If the ball is caught by a player (including an opponent) after a hit, this is not a fault, as the necessary ground contact did not take place after the hit. To prevent a hit, it is also allowed to catch the ball outside the field of play. Here only the mistake of trespassing applies and the ball is to be given to the opponent. b.) If the ball coming from the opponent touches several players and then touches the ground, the first player hit is considered to have been thrown. c.) a head hit: the ball stays with the team that hit the head. Head hits are to be avoided for reasons of safety and health of the players. The referee should act on players who always throw at head height to refrain from these throws. If necessary, warnings are also to be issued. Throws at head height are given when a player has to bend down to avoid a ball. Even so, head hits cannot always be avoided. Hits to the head are always to be counted as head hits, regardless of the position in which a player is. This regulation will probably always remain a point of contention. Detecting a head hit is not going to be 9

10 always be easy. A player who is hit in the head even though the ball may have hit the shoulder first will hardly see that a head hit is not a decision. Here the referee is required to make a clear decision. With a little sensitivity and clear explanations, this point can also be got under control. d.) Any violation of the boundaries of the playing field when catching and throwing. The ball is awarded to the opponent. A player who throws the ball is not allowed to step over, hold over or slide over the line. Trespassing, etc. is considered a fault and leads to the loss of the ball. A release does not count. Even a player who catches the ball is not allowed to cross, hold or slip over the lines. A player behind the baseline may not touch the baseline because she is outside the field of play and the lines belong to the field of play. (See also 1.1.3) e.) Entering the baseline by the player standing behind the baseline. The ball is awarded to the opponent. As already mentioned, the boundaries of the playing field count towards the playing field, so stepping on the baseline is entering the playing field and is rated as a fault. The opponent gets the ball. f.) a player crossing the edge of the field three times for defense purposes. It is then considered discarded. The player must be informed of any violation. If a player is driven in the field and steps over the sideline, she gains an unauthorized advantage through more free space. The player must be informed of any violation. If the player catches possession of the ball while stepping over the sideline, she must give the ball to the opposing team. The trespassing is then not counted, because this would mean a double punishment. Double punishments are not allowed! After three trespasses, the player is considered discarded and continues to play behind the baseline.g.) if the ball touches the hall ceiling, including the devices attached to it, during the game. The team that throws the ball to the ceiling, including the devices attached to it, loses the ball. H.) If after 15 rallies there is no attempt to throw the ball, the ball changes to the opponent. After 12 throws, the referee must raise his hand and announce the time game. After throwing it over 15 times without attempting to drop it, the result is 10

11 Release of the ball. If the throw is interrupted by a player (e.g. ball hits the wall), counting is not interrupted. It is only interrupted by the referee. 6.4 It is not a fault: a.) If the ball coming from the opponent touches the ground before the hit. (Globe) In general, an explanation is probably superfluous here. Nevertheless, situations can arise (ground contact and hits in immediate succession) that require a watchful eye. b.) if the ball coming from the opponent touches a player and is then caught by another player. By catching the ball, the ball does not touch the ground after the hit. (See also 6.3 a.) C.) If the ball thrown by a player in the team field ricochets off the hall wall and rolls into the opposing team field. The ball stays behind the baseline. This also applies if the ball is touched by a player in the specified area before or after impact. Basically, the wall, including the attached devices, does not play along. Under no circumstances will the ball rebound in large halls. In small halls, the distances from the baseline to the hall wall often have different widths. This creates different conditions, which means that both teams no longer have equal opportunities. Due to different equal opportunities, a team is disadvantaged, which is not allowed. This also does not change if there is a change of place after a sentence. If the 3rd sentence were possible, the disadvantage would occur again. To complete the situations behind the baseline: If the ball thrown from the team field bounces off a player standing behind the baseline and rolls into the opposing playing field, the ball stays with the opponent. However, if he rolls back into his own team field, he stays there. Basically, if the ball bounces off a player, it stays where it is held. If the ball then rolls over the touchline, this is a ball out, i.e. a mistake. The same applies if the ball ricochets off a player standing in the field of play. 11

7. Ball out: 7.1 Ball out is when the ball has crossed the touchline in its entirety and touched the ground. The team that last touched the ball must hand the ball over to the opponent. A ball out is a mistake, regardless of whether the ball goes in full (thickest point) over your own or the opponent's sideline. As is well known, the baseline belongs to the opposing playing field. This means that when the ball is in the possession of a player standing behind the baseline, it must not touch the baseline. 7.2 If the ball crosses the touchline during the pass and can be caught by a player in the team field or in the notification area without touching the ground, this is not considered a ball out. A player standing in the field of play may catch the ball as long as it is in the air or bring it back into her own field. In doing so, she is not allowed to cross the boundaries of the playing field. The following applies to the interpretation of the rules of the game: 1. If the ball leaves the field of play in flight over the sideline and is caught by a player in the specified area, this is not a ball out. 1.1 If the player is on the extended sideline, this is not a ball out. The lines belong to the playing field. 2. If the ball leaves the field of play in flight over the sideline and is caught by a player outside the specified area, this is a ball release. 2.1 If the extended sideline is crossed, it is a ball release. 3. If the ball leaves the field of play over the baseline, it does not matter where the player is standing. 3.1 If the ball has not left the field of play on the sideline, it is not a ball out. Attention must always be paid to where the ball leaves the field of play and where the player who receives the ball is standing. 8. Scoring: 8.1 A game consists of two winning sets. The team that has thrown off all opposing players wins the respective set. It still has to be said that the team that won two sets won the game. 12th

8.2 Every game won is rated with 2: 0 points. Each set won is awarded one point. The players who are not discarded are also counted and rated. If two sets were won, the result could be 2: 0 points, 2: 0 sets, 5: 0 players. If both teams win a set, a tie is reached, which makes a third set necessary. Here the result could be: 2: 0 points, 2: 1 sets, 5: 2 players. When evaluating a game round, the points are important first, the sentences second, and then the players. If the points and sets are tied, the difference between the players remaining in their own field and those who are discarded is decisive. If there is also a tie here, the team that has kept the most players on its own playing field wins. Ultimately, a direct comparison can also be decisive. 8.3 If a team does not start the game is scored 0: 2 points, 0: 2 for the sets and 0: 16 for the players. Points, sentences and players will be credited to the team that has competed. If a team is not present at the scheduled time, according to the OFS they have to wait 15 minutes. The same applies if a team with only 5 players is present. The arrival of at least the 6th player should also be waited for 15 minutes. With the consent of the home team and the referee, a longer waiting time is possible. 9. Referee. 9.1 Each game is directed by a 1st and 2nd referee, who are assisted by 2 linesmen. The 1st referee is fully responsible for the course of the game. Due to the full responsibility for the course of the game, the 1st referee is particularly challenged, after all, it is a matter of guaranteeing a correct course of the game and a fair game result for two teams. A 2nd referee and 2 linesmen who support the 1st referee in directing the game are to be regarded as partners. An agreement before the start of the game helps to avoid differences in the game management. A clear briefing on the tasks at hand can be an advantage. Participation in the game management does not release the 1st referee from full responsibility. A confident demeanor and clear decisions, indicated by a clean whistle, also give the teams a certain degree of security. Becomes one of 13

For whatever reasons, a wrong decision recognized as such and withdrawn will certainly not damage the reputation of the 1st referee. Decisions that were not understood by the players require an explanation, which must be given by the referee. 9.2 The 1st referee ensures that the rules of the game are observed and decides all questions independently. His factual decisions are final. The referee must not allow spectators or players to influence his judgment. Factual decisions mean: hits, balls, headshots, earth balls, trespassing ... Factual decisions are decisions that the referee makes clearly and independently during the game. He can correct a decision after consulting his 2nd referee or linesman or after having recognized himself. The 1st referee makes sure that the playing field, the ball and the playing clothing are in good condition before the game. He checks the eligibility to play and conducts the draw with the team captains. The regular playing field includes the size, the boundary lines and the free spaces around the playing field (as described under point 1). If the playing field in a hall is clearly marked, the referee can restrict himself to checking the extended touchline. However, if the playing field is marked with adhesive tape, an inspection is essential. The condition of the ball is described under point 2. If both teams compete in the same colors and if it is not possible to change clothes, the referee will enter this in the match report. (See also The 1st referee opens and closes the game. He has the right to interrupt or abandon it. The start and end of the game interruption are indicated by a whistle. A clear whistle at the start of the game ensures full attention Likewise, an interruption of the game is to be indicated by a whistle, just as the cancellation of the interruption is to be indicated by a whistle. The whistle should be followed by an indication: eg hit, touch, header etc. Whistles are to be displayed. 14

15 9.2.3 The referees and linesmen are outside the field of play. It is advisable to get a raised stand (trestle, box). Mistakes can be recognized more easily from a higher point of view. After the game, the 1st referee announces the result. The correctness of the entries on the game form must be confirmed by him and the team captains. In order to avoid all possible mistakes and thus the possibility of objection, the game result will be announced after the game. The team captains confirm the correctness of the entries with their signature. Objections to the valuation of the game must be reported by the opposing team immediately after the result of the game has been announced and entered on the score sheet by the referee. The opposing team may not sign the score sheet. Appeals against rule errors by the referee are also possible. 9.3 The second arbitrator supports the first arbitrator in the performance of his duties. In particular, he has to ensure: - that all players are noted on the game form, - that no player exceeds the boundaries of the field of play, - that players who are thrown off leave the field of play via their own sidelines. - that the baseline player is substituted, - that the cover letter takes place on the game form. He also has to perform the tasks assigned to him by the 1st referee. The importance of the 2nd referee is shown solely by the various tasks assigned to him. In order to fulfill these tasks, a great deal of attention and active participation is required. An important task is to observe the center line, especially when the game is played directly in front of the 1st referee. (See also 6.) 9.4 The linesmen have their position at the end points of the sideline opposite the 1st referee. They support the referee in leading the game by signaling line errors according to Rule 6.3 with a whistle. 15th

16 The main task of the linesman is to observe the baseline, which the players behind the baseline must not enter. (See also 6.1) The 1st referee is particularly dependent on the support of the line judge, as these errors are difficult to recognize due to the distance of the 1st referee to the baseline. Often times, linesmen are distracted by watching the game and are not really on the ball. The 1st referee is required to inform the linesman about their duties. According to the rules of the game, linesmen are not allowed to show throws, but only line faults and balls. In cases of doubt, the linesmen can be questioned by the 1st referee. Linesmen and scorer are provided by the teams that are not playing. According to the OFS, teams that take part in championship games are obliged to provide referees. This also applies according to the rules of the game for the linesman and scorer. (In tournaments, the markers are provided by the competition management.) 9.5 In the event of unsportsmanlike conduct by a player, the referee is obliged to impose the following penalties, depending on the severity of the offense. a. Warning, b. Field reference. The admonition precedes the punishments. It is the sole responsibility of the 1st referee to impose penalties. Admonitions: Are issued in the event of minor violations such as constantly crossing the lines or things that disrupt the game. Warnings: If irregular behavior, dangerous play or even, if the same thing occurs repeatedly despite warnings, the player must leave the field after 3 warnings, the game may not continue and be replaced. It is not equivalent to a field reference. Expulsion from the field: In the event of grossly unsportsmanlike conduct, insults to the referee or the players, dangerous play in particularly difficult cases. The referee should carefully consider whether a expulsion from the field is pronounced. A player who has been expelled from the field may not be replaced during the game. 16

17 Players who are sent off the field may not be replaced during the entire game. In addition, a field reference results in a lock. 1st expulsion = 4 games, 2nd expulsion = 8 games. The referee's duty of care towards the players should be noted here. Everything must be avoided that is harmful to health and could lead to injuries. An injured player must be treated immediately and with all due care. 17th

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