Why are most carnival ship captains Italian
Cruise ship - Cruise ship
Cruise ships are large passenger ships that are mainly used for vacation. Unlike ocean liners, which are used for transportation, they typically make round-trip trips to various ports of call where passengers can take tours known as "shore excursions". On "cruises to nowhere" or "nowhere", cruise ships make two to three-day round trips without visiting ports of call.
Modern cruise ships tend to have less hull strength, speed and agility compared to ocean liners. However, they have added amenities to cater to water tourists, with the recent ships being referred to as "balcony-laden floating condos".
As of December 2018, 314 cruise ships with a total capacity of 537,000 passengers have been in service around the world. Cruises have become an integral part of the tourism industry, with an estimated market of $ 29.4 billion per year and more than 19 million passengers transported annually worldwide as of 2011. Due to the rapid growth of the industry, nine or more newly built ships have been served for North America. Since 2001, customers have been added each year, as have others serving European customers.
As of 2021, the world's largest passenger ship is the Royal Caribbean's Symphony of the Seas .
Italy, a traditional focus of the Grand Tour, offered an early cruise on the Francesco I under the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The built in 1831 Francesco I sailed from Naples in early June 1833, followed by an advertising campaign. Nobles, authorities and royal princes from all over Europe boarded the cruise ship, which drove to Taormina, Catania, Syracuse, Malta, Corfu, Patras, Delphi, Zante, Athens, Smyrna and Constantinople in just over three months and delighted passengers with excursions and Guided tours, dancing, card tables on deck and parties on board. However, it was limited to the aristocracy of Europe and was not a commercial endeavor.
P&O first introduced passenger cruises in 1844 and promoted sea tours to destinations such as Gibraltar, Malta and Athens which departed from Southampton. As the forerunners of the modern cruise vacation, these voyages were the first of their kind. P&O Cruises is the oldest cruise line in the world. The company later introduced round trips to destinations such as Alexandria and Constantinople. In the second half of the 19th century it experienced a phase of rapid expansion and commissioned larger and more luxurious ships to serve the ever-growing market. The SS built in 1880 are among the notable ships of this period Ravenna , which was the first ship to be built with a steel superstructure, and the SS Valetta , which was the first ship to use electric light.
The cruise of the German ship Augusta Victoria in the Mediterranean and Middle East from January 22nd to March 22nd, 1891 with 241 passengers (including Albert Ballin and his wife) has popularized cruises in a wider market. Christian Wilhelm Allers published an illustrated report as Backschisch (Baksheesh).
The first ship to be built exclusively for luxury cruises was Princess Victoria Luise from Germany, designed by Albert Ballin, General Manager of the Hamburg-America Line. The ship was completed in 1900.
The practice of luxury cruising steadily penetrated the more established market for transatlantic crossings. In the competition for passengers added ocean liner - the Titanic as the most famous example - luxury goods such as fine dining, luxury services and cabins with finer appointments are added. In the late 19th century, Albert Ballin, director of the Hamburg-America Line, was the first to send his transatlantic ships on long cruises in the south during the worst winter season in the North Atlantic. Other companies followed suit. Some of them built specialty ships designed for easy conversion between summer cruises and winter cruises.
In 1897 three luxury liners, all of which were in European ownership, offered transports between Europe and North America. In 1906 the number had risen to seven. The British Inman Line owned the City of Paris who had the Cunard Line Campania and Lucania . The White Star Line owned Majestic and Teutonic . La Lorraine and La Savoie sailed to the French Compagnie Générale Transatlantique.
From luxury ocean liners to "megaship" cruises
With the advent of large passenger jet planes in the 1960s, intercontinental travelers switched from ships to aircraft sending the ocean liner trade into a terminal decline. Certain features of older ocean liners made them unsuitable for cruising, such as: B. high fuel consumption, draft that prevents entry into shallow harbors, and cabins (often windowless), which are intended to maximize passenger numbers rather than comfort.
The passenger-oriented ocean liner services were discontinued in 1986, with the exception of the transatlantic crossings of the British shipping company Cunard Line, which covered a niche market for those who appreciated the many days at sea. To shift the focus of the market from passenger travel to entertainment value cruises, Cunard Line pioneered the transatlantic luxury cruise service aboard the Queen Elizabeth 2- Ocean liner. International celebrities were hired to play cabaret acts on board, and the crossing was advertised as a vacation for themselves.
Queen Elizabeth 2 opened also a "one-class cruise" in which all passengers received the same landing stage and facilities. This revitalized the market as the appeal of luxury cruises took hold on both sides of the Atlantic. The TV series Love Boat out the 1970s helped popularize the concept as a romantic opportunity for couples. Another ship for this transition was the SS Norway , originally the ocean liner SS France, the was later converted to cruise duties as the first "super ship" in the Caribbean.
Contemporary cruise ships built in the late 1980s and later, like the Sovereign Class that has been the norm for decades Norway The size record that was held, exhibited features of size and strength once reserved for ocean liners - some have made regularly scheduled transatlantic crossings. The ships of the Sovereign Great were the first "mega-ships" built for the mass cruise market. They were also the first series of cruise lines to include a multi-story atrium with glass elevators. They also had a single deck devoted exclusively to cabins with private balconies instead of cabins with ocean views. Other cruise lines soon launched ships with similar characteristics to the one Fantasy Class that goes to Vista Class of the Panamax type and was designed so that two thirds of the cabins have verandas with sea views. Because the cruise ship veranda suites were particularly lucrative, which was lacking on older ocean liners, newer cruise ships were designed to maximize these amenities and were referred to as "balcony-laden floating condos".
Until 1975-1980, cruises offered shuffleboard, deck chairs, "drinks with umbrellas and little else for a few hundred passengers". After 1980 they offered increasing convenience. As of 2010, city-sized ships have dozens of amenities.
Since 2001, nine or more new cruise lines have been added each year, including the eleven members of the Vista Great, and everyone with 100,000 GT or more. The only comparable ocean liner to be completed in recent years has Cunard Line's Queen Mary 2 in 2004. After leaving her companion runs Queen Elizabeth 2 in November 2008 Queen Mary 2 is the only liner operating on transatlantic routes, although it also provides significant service on cruise routes.
Queen Mary 2 was the largest passenger liner for a while before being surpassed by Royal Caribbean International's Freedom -Class ships in 2006. The freedom -Class ships were again overhauled by RCI's own Oasis -Class ships that entered service in 2009 and 2010 A special feature of ships of the Oasis-class is the split "open atrium" structure, which is made possible by the extraordinary width of the hull. The 6-deck-high "Central Park" and "Boardwalk" outdoor areas run through the center of the ship and verandas on all decks.
In two short decades (1988–2009), the largest class of cruise ships grew by a third longer (268 m to 360 m), almost doubled their width (32.2 m to 60.5 m) and doubled the total number of passengers (2,744 to 5,400). and tripled in volume (73,000 GT to 225,000 GT). In addition, the "mega-ships" went from a single deck with verandas to all decks with verandas.
Cruise ship operators are known as cruise ships. These are companies that sell cruises to the public. Cruise ships have a dual character; They are partly in the transportation business and partly in the leisure entertainment business, a duality that carries over to the ships themselves, which have both a crew under the direction of the ship's captain and hotel staff under the direction of a hotel manager. Among the cruise lines, some are direct descendants of traditional passenger shipping lines (such as Cunard), while others were established specifically for cruises from the 1960s onwards.
In the past, the cruise business has been volatile. The ships are large capital investments with high operating costs. A continued decline in bookings can put a company financially at risk. Cruise lines have sold, refurbished, or renamed their ships to keep up with travel trends. Cruise ships operate their ships almost all the time. If maintenance is not scheduled, it can potentially result in thousands of dissatisfied customers.
A wave of failures and consolidations in the 1990s resulted in many cruise lines being bought by much larger holding companies and continuing to function as "brands" or subsidiaries of the holding company. Brands are also retained, in part due to the expectation of recurring customer loyalty and the range of different levels of quality and service. For example, Carnival Corporation & plc owns both Carnival Cruise Line, whose former image was ships known as "party ships" for younger travelers but have become large, modern, yet profitable, and Holland America Line, whose ships are cultivating a picture of classic elegance. In 2004, Carnival merged Cunard's headquarters with Princess Cruises' headquarters in Santa Clarita, California to combine administrative, financial and technology services. This ended the story of Cunard, in which the company operated independently of the parent company as an independent company (subsidiary). However, Cunard regained some independence in 2009 when its headquarters moved to Carnival House in Southampton.
In the cruise industry, when listing cruise ship transfers and orders, it is common practice to list the smaller operating company rather than the larger holding company as the recipient cruise line for the sale, transfer, or new order. In other words, Carnival Cruise Line and Holland America Line, for example, are the cruise lines from this industry perspective. while Carnival Corporation & plc and Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. , for example, companies from cruise lines may be considered to hold. This industry practice of using the smaller operating company rather than the larger holding company is also followed in the cruise line list and member-based reviews of cruise lines.
Some cruise lines have specialties; For example, Saga Cruises only allows passengers over the age of 50 on their ships, and Star Clippers and earlier Windjammer Barefoot Cruises and Windstar Cruises only operate tall ships. Regent Seven Seas Cruises operates medium-sized vessels - smaller than Carnival and Royal Caribbean's "mega-ships" - which are designed so that virtually all suites are balconies. Several special lines offer "expedition cruises" or only operate small ships that visit certain destinations such as the Arctic and Antarctic or the Galapagos Islands. John W. Brown who previously operated as part of the United States Merchant Marine during World War II before being converted into a museum ship, launches six-hour Living History Cruises several times a year that take the ship through Baltimore Harbor, down the Patapsco River and Chesapeake Bay, and it is also the largest cruise ship operating under the American flag on the east coast of the United States.
Currently, the three largest cruise lines and operators in the world are Carnival Corporation & plc, Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. and Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings.
As an industry, the total number of cabins on all cruise lines in the world is less than 2% of the world's hotel rooms.
Cruise ships are organized in a similar way to floating hotels and, in addition to the usual ship crew, have a full staff in the hospitality industry. It is not uncommon for the most luxurious ships to have more crew and staff than passengers.
Food on almost all cruise lines is included in the cruise price.
Traditionally, the ship's restaurants organize two dinners a day, early and late, and passengers are assigned a set meal time for the entire cruise. A current trend is to enable guests to dine whenever they want. With two dinners, the ship has enough time and space to accommodate all of its guests. Two different dinners can conflict with some of the ship's events (such as shows and performances) for the late diners. However, this problem is usually resolved by having a shorter version of the event happening before the late dinner. Maintaining the ocean liner class tradition, Cunard Line ships have separate dining rooms for different types of suites, while Celebrity Cruises and Princess Cruises have a standard dining room and "upgrade" specialty restaurants that require pre-reservation and cover fees. Many cruises schedule one or more "formal dinners". Guests dress "formally," but what is defined for the ship, often suits and ties or even tuxedos for men and formal dresses for women. The menu is more upscale than usual.
In addition to the dining room, modern cruise lines often have one or more casual buffet restaurants that are open 24/7 with menus that vary throughout the day, serving meals from breakfast to snacks until late at night. In recent years, cruise lines have begun to accommodate a variety of ethnic-themed restaurants on board each ship. The ships also offer numerous bars and nightclubs for the entertainment of the passengers. Most cruise lines do not include alcoholic beverages in their tariffs and passengers are expected to pay for the beverages as they consume. Most cruise lines also prohibit passengers from bringing and consuming their own beverages, including alcohol, on board. The alcohol purchased duty-free is sealed and returned to the passengers upon disembarking.
There is often a central galley responsible for serving all of the major restaurants on board the ship, although specialty restaurants may have their own separate galleys.
As with any ship, proper care is vital, especially on a cruise ship that serves several thousand meals in each seat. For example, for the Royal Princess a quasi "military operation" is required to load and unload 3600 passengers and eight tons of groceries at the beginning and end of each cruise.
Other facilities on board
Cruise ships require electrical power, which is usually provided by diesel generators, although more and more new ships are powered by liquefied natural gas (LNG). When docked, ships must operate their generators continuously to supply on-board systems with electricity, unless they are able to use onshore electricity, if available. The pollutant emissions from diesel engines can be the equivalent of 700 trucks running their engines and are harmful when ships dock in populated areas. Some cruise ships already support the use of shore power, others are being adapted for this.
Modern cruise lines typically have some or all of the following on-board facilities:
- Casino - Open only when the ship is at sea to avoid conflict with local laws
- Shops - Open only when the ship is at sea to avoid merchandising licenses and local taxes
- Fitness center
- Theater with Broadway-style shows
- movie theater
- Indoor and / or outdoor pool with water slides
- Buffet restaurant
- Pool tables
- Ping pong tables
- Infirmary and morgue
- Card room
- Observation lounge
- Teen lounges
- Childcare facilities
Some ships have bowling alleys, ice rinks, climbing walls, sky diving simulators, mini golf courses, video arcades, zip lines, surf simulators, basketball courts, tennis courts, chain restaurants, rope obstacle courses, and even roller coasters.
The crew is usually hired with contracts of three to eleven months, which can then be extended by agreement depending on the service rating of the passengers and the cyclical nature of the cruise company. Most employees work 77-hour straight weeks for 10 consecutive months, followed by two months of vacation.
Depending on the position and type of contract, there are no paid vacation or pensions for service and non-management crew members. Members of the non-service and management crew receive paid vacation, sickness, and retirement options and can take part in the company's group insurance.
The direct salary is low by North American standards, although the restaurant staff have considerable earning potential from passenger tips. Crew members have no costs on board as food and accommodation, medical care and transportation are included for most of the staff. Oyogoa explains: "Crewing agencies often take advantage of the desperation of potential employees."
Living conditions vary depending on the cruise line, but mostly depending on the ship's position. As a rule, two employees share a cubicle with a shower, chest of drawers and a desk with a television, while executives are assigned individual cubicles. There are a number of facilities for the crew that are separate from those for passengers, such as: B. Exhibition rooms and bars, lounges, prayer rooms / mosques and a fitness center. Some larger ships even have a crew deck with a swimming pool and hot tubs.
All crew members must bring their certificates of standard of training, certification and supervision or complete the training while on board. Crew members must consider completing this certification prior to embarkation as it is time consuming and must be done concurrently with their daily work on board.
The largest cruise lines employ most of the "hotel staff" from less industrialized countries in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Caribbean and Central America. While several cruise lines are headquartered in the US, like most international shipping companies, ships are registered in countries like the Netherlands, the UK, the Bahamas, and Panama. The International Labor Organization's 2006 Maritime Labor Convention, also known as the Seafarers' Bill of Rights, provides comprehensive rights and protection for all crew members. The ILO sets strict standards for hours of work and rest, health and safety, and the living conditions of crew members, and calls on governments to ensure that ships are compliant. For cruise routes around Hawaii, operators must register their ships in the US and the crew is unionized. As a result, these cruises are typically much more expensive than the Caribbean or Mediterranean.
Most of the cruise companies since the 2000s have had the cruise experience à la carte to a certain degree rated , as the passenger expenses on board generate significantly more than the ticket sales. The passenger ticket includes in-cabin accommodation, room service, unlimited meals in the main dining room (or main restaurant) and buffet, access to shows and use of pool and fitness facilities. There is a daily tip fee for housekeeping and waiter service. However, there are additional fees for alcohol and soft drinks, official cruise photos, Internet and Wi-Fi access, and specialty restaurants. The casino and photos have been reported to have high profit margins. Cruise lines make significant profits from the sale of onshore excursions offered by local contractors. Retain 50% or more of passengers' expenses on these tours. In addition, cruise lines earn substantial commissions on sales of onshore businesses advertised as "preferred" on board (up to 40% of gross sales). This practice is made easier by modern cruise terminals with facilities for duty-free shops within a radius that are only accessible to passengers and not to locals. Ports of call have often designed their own businesses and facilities to meet the needs of cruise lines. In one case, Alaska's Icy Strait Point, the entire destination was created explicitly and exclusively for cruise-goers.
The journey to and from the departure airport is usually the responsibility of the passengers. However, purchasing a transfer pass from the cruise line for the journey between the airport and the cruise terminal guarantees that the ship will not depart until the passenger is on board. If the passenger books a shore excursion with the cruise line and the tour is delayed, the ship must stay until the passenger returns.
Luxury cruise lines such as Regent Seven Seas Cruises and Crystal Cruises market their tariffs as "all-inclusive". For example, the base price for Regent Seven Seas ships includes most alcoholic beverages on board and most shore excursions at ports of call, as well as any tips normally paid to hotel staff on the ship. The tariff may also include a one night hotel stay prior to boarding and the fare to and from the cruise departure and destination ports.
Older cruise ships often had multiple owners. It is common for the transfer of ownership to involve upgrading and a name change. Some ships had a dozen or more identities.
Many cruise lines have a common naming scheme that they use for their ships. Some lines use their name as a prefix or suffix in the ship's name (for example, the prefixes "Carnival", "AIDA", "Disney", and "Norwegian", and the suffix "Princess"). Other lines use a unique word or phrase (e.g. the prefix "Pacific" for P&O Cruises Australia or the suffixes "of the Seas" for Royal Caribbean International and "-dam" for Holland America Line ships) . By adding these prefixes and suffixes, multiple cruise lines can use the same common ship names while maintaining a unique identifier for each ship.
Capacity utilization of the cruise ships
Due to the slower speed and the reduced seaworthiness as well as the extensive introduction after several major wars, cruise ships were never used as troop carriers. In contrast, ocean liners were often viewed as the pride of their country and were used to competing with liners from other nations. They were requested during both the World War and the Falklands War to transport soldiers and serve as hospital ships.
Cruise ships and former liners often find employment in applications other than those for which they were built. A shortage of hotel accommodation for the 2004 Summer Olympics led to the plan to moor a number of cruise ships in Athens to provide tourist accommodation.
On September 1, 2005, the US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) commissioned three Carnival Cruise Lines ships (Carnival Fantasy, the former Carnival Holiday and the Carnival Sensation) to accommodate evacuees from Hurricane Katrina.
In response to the closure of UK airspace due to the 2010 eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull, the newly completed one was completed Celebrity Eclipse used to rescue 2000 British tourists stranded in Spain who were stranded out of goodwill by the owners. The ship sailed from Southampton to Bilbao on April 21st and returned on April 23rd.
In 2017, cruise ships were used to transport residents of some of the Caribbean islands destroyed by Hurricane Irma, as well as residents of Puerto Rico displaced by Hurricane Maria.
Most cruise lines sail in the Caribbean or the Mediterranean. Others operate elsewhere in places like Alaska, the South Pacific, the Baltic Sea, and New England. A cruise ship moving from one of these regions to another will typically make a repositioning cruise in the process. Expedition cruise lines, which usually operate small vessels, visit certain more specialized destinations such as the Arctic and Antarctic or the Galapagos Islands.
The number of cruise tourists worldwide was estimated at around 14 million in 2005. The main region for cruises was North America (70% of cruises), where the Caribbean islands were the most popular destinations.
The second most popular region was continental Europe (13%), where cruises in the Baltic Sea are the fastest growing segment. The most visited Baltic ports are Copenhagen, St. Petersburg, Tallinn, Stockholm and Helsinki. The seaport of St. Petersburg, the main port of call on the Baltic Sea, received 426,500 passengers during the 2009 cruise season.
According to CEMAR statistics from 2010, the Mediterranean cruise market is changing rapidly and profoundly. Italy has gained a prime position as a destination for European cruises and as a destination for the entire Mediterranean. The most visited ports in the Mediterranean are Barcelona (Spain), Civitavecchia (Italy), Palma (Spain) and Venice (Italy).
In 2013, the first Chinese company entered the cruise market. China's first luxury cruise ship, Henna, made her maiden voyage from Sanya Phoenix Island International Port in late January.
Caribbean cruise industry
The Caribbean cruise industry is one of the largest in the world, with direct sales of over $ 2 billion in 2012 in the Caribbean islands. Over 45,000 people from the Caribbean are directly employed in the cruise industry. An estimated 17,457,600 cruise passengers visited the islands in the 2011–2012 cruise year (May 2011 to April 2012). Cruise lines operating in the Caribbean include Royal Caribbean International, Princess Cruises, Carnival Cruise Line, Celebrity Cruises, Disney Cruise Line and Holland America, P&O, Cunard, Crystal Cruises, Pullmantur Cruises and Norwegian Cruise Line. There are also smaller cruise lines that create a more intimate feeling among their guests. The three largest cruise lines are Carnival Corporation, Royal Caribbean International, and Star Cruises / Norwegian Cruise Lines.
Many American cruise lines to the Caribbean leave the port of Miami, with "almost a third of the cruises departing from Miami in recent years". Other cruise ships depart from Port Everglades (in Fort Lauderdale), Port Canaveral (about 45 miles east of Orlando), New York, Tampa, Galveston, New Orleans, Cape Liberty, Baltimore, Jacksonville, Charleston, Norfolk and Mobile and San Juan, Puerto Rico . Some UK cruise lines station their ships from Barbados for the Caribbean season and offer direct charter flights from the UK.
The busiest ports of call in the Caribbean for cruises in 2013 are listed below
|rank||aim|| Passenger - |
|3||American Virgin Islands||1.998.579|
|8||Turks and Caicos Islands||778.920|
|12||St. Kitts and Nevis||629.000|
|16||Antigua and Barbuda||533,993|
|18||British Virgin Islands||367,362|
|24||St. Vincent and the Grenadines||82.974|
Alaskan cruise industry
2016 was the final year of the Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA) studies conducted in the cruise industry specifically in the United States and Alaska in particular. In 2016, cruises in Alaska resulted in nearly 5 million passenger and crew visits, 20.3% of all passenger and crew visits in the United States. (NASDAQ, 2017) Cruise ships frequently take passengers to Glacier Bay National Park, Ketchikan, Anchorage, Skagway, and the state capital, Juneau.
|total|| proportion of |
of the USA
|Embarkation of passengers||157.000||1.3|
|Resident cruise passengers||9.000||0,1|
|Total number of passenger and crew visits||4.897.000||20.3|
|Direct expenses||$ 1,065 million||4.9|
|Effects on overall employment||19.842||5.1|
|Total wage impact||$ 991 million||4.8|
Visitor volume is represented by the total number of visitors entering the waters and / or airspace of Alaska. Between October 2016 and September 2017, Alaska had approximately 2.2 million visitors; 49% of these came from the cruise industry. That 2.2 million was a 27% increase since 2009, and the overall volume has steadily increased. Visitors generally spend money while traveling, and this is measured in two different areas: the cruise line themselves and the visitors. There are no up-to-date figures for cruise-specific land passenger spend, but total visitor spend can be measured. Tours accounted for $ 394 million (18%), gifts and souvenirs for $ 427 million (20%), groceries for $ 428 million (20%), transportation for $ 258 million (12%), accommodation for $ 454 million ( 21%) and other USD 217 million (10%)%). The second major area of economic growth comes from what the cruise lines and their crews themselves spend. Cruise lines spend around $ 297 million on the items included in their packages on board and ashore as part of group travel: things like stagecoach rides and boat tours on smaller ships at their ports of call. This money is paid out to the service providers by the cruise company. The cruise ship crew is also a source of revenue. In 2017 alone, 27,000 crew members visited Alaska and generated around 22 million US dollars. 2017 was also a good year for job creation in Alaska: 43,300 jobs were created, generating $ 1.5 billion in labor costs, and generating total income of $ 4.5 billion. These jobs were scattered all over Alaska. Southeast Alaska had 11,925 jobs ($ 455 million wages), Southwest 1,800 jobs ($ 50 million wages), South Central 20,700 jobs ($ 761 million wages), Interior 8,500 jobs ($ 276 million) Labor income), Far North 375 jobs ($ 13 million labor income). Income from work is shown in the graph below.
|employment|| Earned income |
|to eat and drink||6.900||173|
|Tours and activities||5.000||173|
|Total direct jobs / income from visitor spend||30.400||870|
|Direct jobs / income from industrial spending||4.100||133|
|Indirect / induced labor income||8.800||536|
|Jobs / income related to the entire visitor industry||43.300||1,539|
The cruise ship construction market is dominated by three European companies and one Asian company:
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