There are volcanoes in Canada

Volcanoes in North America

There are numerous volcanoes in North America. Most of them belong to the? Ring of fire? and lie along the west coast of North America. This volcanic chain correlates with the subduction of the Pacific plate below that of the North American continent. It starts with the Aleutian Islands and runs through Alaska, Canada, the USA and Mexico. From there the volcanoes extend further along the west coast of Central America to Tierra del Fuego in South America. Typical of this subduction zone volcanism are volcanoes that erupt explosively or form lava domes from viscous mafic lava.

Volcanoes in the far north: Aleutian Islands, Alaska, Canada

The volcanoes in the far north of the Aleutian and Alaskas are most active. These volcanoes are monitored by the AVO. The best-known representatives of this series of volcanoes are Mount Cleveland, Pavlof, Mount Redoubt and Katmai with Nova Rupta. In December 2016, the Bogoslov volcano erupted surprisingly. This volcano consists of only a small island and is officially listed as a submarine volcano.
There are a number of Quaternary volcanoes along the coast of Canada, but they have been very quiet for centuries. The most recent eruption occurred around 1800 at the Lava Fork volcano.

Volcanoes in the United States of America

The 1130 km long mountain range of the Cascades (Cascade Range) begins in the south of Canada. The famous volcanoes of the Cascades are in the US state of Washington: Mt. Rainier and Mt. St. Helens. The latter erupted catastrophically in 1981. Oregon is home to the Crater Lake caldera and Mount Mazama volcano. In northern California lies the Lassen Volcanics National Park with the southernmost volcano of the Lassen Peak cascade range. It last erupted in 1914-1917. The Sierra Nevada mountain range connects to the south. During the early stages of orogeny there was impressive magmatism in the Sierra Nevada, as evidenced by the granite domes of Yosemite, for example. The volcanoes are concentrated on the eastern foothills of the Sierra Nevada in the Baisn and Range Province. They are therefore further inland and away from the characteristic subduction zone volcanism of the coastal mountains. Their formation is related to the spreading mechanisms of the Basin and Range Province, which can be compared to an active rift. Some large calder volcanoes such as the Monolake and the Long Valley Caldera were formed. At the edge of the caldera, cinder cones (mono-inyo craters) and lava domes formed.

Typical of the eruptions of these large caldera volcanoes are eruptions with high VEIs, which are often referred to as? Super volcano eruptions? are designated. These occur in time intervals of several 10,000 (VEI 7) to several 100,000 (VEI 8) years. Since eruptions of this magnitude have never occurred in modern times, volcanologists lack experience that would allow a precise prediction of a possible supervolcanic eruption. The fact is that there are signs of magmatic activity from several of these volcanoes. These signs include ground deformations and swarm quakes, or an increase in temperature of fumarolic gases.

The most famous caldera volcano in the USA is the Yellowstone volcano. This is located in the northern part of the Rocky Mountains and erupted lava which also comes in part from the subducted oceanic crust of the Pacific plate, but other influences are also suspected. A? Hot spot? Was created under the Yellowstone caldera. postulated that penetrates the subducted plate at great depth.

Another volcanic chain that geographically belongs to the United States is that of Hawaii. Here a mantle plume created a volcanic island chain that grows up in the middle of the Pacific plate.

Volcanoes in Mexico

The US-American mountain range of the Sierra Nevada stretches from southern California to the north of Mexico and slowly expires there. This area is home to numerous plutons and hot springs that run through Baja California. There are numerous smaller stratovolcanoes, lava domes and lava fields along the Baja California, the Gulf of Mexico and some islands near the Pacific coast. These are again related to the subduction of the Pacific plate under the continent. To complicate matters, there is another mountain range in central Mexico called the Sierra Nevada (Snowy Mountains). However, it does not run parallel to the Pacific coast, but at a 90 degree angle to it in an east-west direction. This mountain range is part of the Sierra Volcánica Transversal, also known as the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This is a continental arc that was probably formed by the collision between North and South America.
There are 6 high volcanoes of which Popocatepetl is the most active and best known. Much smaller, but also mentioned in the history books, is the Paricutin. This cinder cone is one of the youngest volcanoes on earth and was created in 1943 in a field. The Colima volcano joins it further south.
Another well-known volcano in Mexico is El Chichón. It is part of another east-west crumple zone between North and South America. El Chichón erupted in 1982. As a result of the high level of sulfur dioxide entering the stratosphere, the global temperature fell by 1 degree Celsius in the following year.

As of 2017

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