Was Tuglaq a good ruler

Firuz Shah Tughluq

Firuz Shah Tughluq (* 1309; † 1388 in Delhi) was Sultan of Delhi from 1351 to 1388 and came from the Tughluq dynasty. His father Sipah Salar Rajab was the brother of Chiyas-us-din, his mother Bibi Naila, was the daughter of Bharatti Rajput, Rana Mall, her father was one of the Rajas of Dialpur.

Firuz Shah Tughluq's mausoleum in Delhi


Firuz was his mother's only son, he had two stepbrothers: Malik Nabib Barbak and Qutbuddin. At the age of 7, Firuz Shah lost his father. His uncle, Chiyas-us-din, took over his upbringing. As a result, a fatherly relationship developed between the two. When Firuz was 12 years old, Chiyas-us-din was overthrown. Within those four and a half years, Firuz was introduced to government affairs through his uncle.

At the age of 17 Firuz came to the court of his cousin Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq in Delhi. The sultan continued his cousin's government training. Firuz became the darling of Muhammad bin Tughluq. According to the sultan's wishes, Firuz should take over the throne after his death.

When the Sultan of Delhi divided his kingdom into four administrative regions, he gave his one of them so that Firuz could gain his own experience. The young ruler seems to have developed good relationships with the people in his region, which helped him to gain a good overview of the affairs of government. However, no primary sources have survived that prove the popularity of Firuz.

At the age of 43 he became Sultan of Delhi and successor to Muhammad bin Tughluq when he died in 1351. Muhammad's son and heir, Mahmud Ibn Muhammad, died that same year. The right of Firuz 'to the throne, however, was contested by the sister of Sultan Muhammad, Khudā-Wandzāah Malik. She and her husband, Khusrau Malik tried to assassinate the newly crowned sultan. “The attack” on the Sultan failed thanks to the son of the two conspirators, Davar Malik. Due to his loyalty to Firuz, he betrayed his parents' plans and thus saves the ruler's life.


Firuz Shah's tenure brought with it several reforms. His aim was to improve the economy in his country. He was the first ruler who turned to the people and tried to make the lives of the rural people easier and to win their trust. He abolished the land take and stopped confiscating land. The Sultan used his popularity among the leading dignitaries and lawyers at the court to carry out his ideas. He introduced taxes in the country, such as the Zikat religious tax, the amount of which was 2½% of the property of every Muslim in the country and was measured in gold.

Firuz Shah dealt with Sanskrit, literature and art. He himself was a poet. He had several Hindi works translated into Persian.

Sultan Firuz Shah Tughluq probably had the Roman proverb as his motto: “If you want peace, prepare for war!”. Scientists agree that he waged the following wars during his reign: two in Bengal, one in Jajnagar, one in Nagarkot, two in Thatta. The second war in Thatta lasted over 13 years.

After his second war expedition to Bengal, Firuz Shah made the decision to found the city of Firozabad as his capital. The city became known for its architecture and was 10 miles away from Old Delhi. It was divided into 18 districts.

During his reign, Firuz Shah had mosques built in different parts of his country. The mosques always had the same construction and looked the same except for small differences. All of them had large entrances and high roofs. They stood as a symbol of strength and power. In one of his largest mosques in Delhi, Firuz Shah had a pillar of the ancient King Ashoka placed, which he found in the village of Topra during one of his war expeditions to Thatta in 1366. However, the king knew little about King Ashoka, and scientists agree that he did not know what was written on the pillar and what its meaning was.

Firuz Shah is the last powerful Sultan of Delhi of the Tughluq Dynasty. Ten years after his reign, the rule of the Tughluq dynasty in Delhi ended.