How were topographic maps originally created

Historical topographic maps

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    200 years of Bavarian history in cards

    A large number of previous editions of the official map series 1: 25,000 to 1: 500,000 are available in digital form from our map archive. Some of these historical maps go back to the 19th century and show in detail the many changes in our Bavarian homeland over the decades.

    The offer includes uncompressed TIF data with a resolution of 400 dpi; these are available with or without a card border.

    Topographic map of Bavaria 1:25 000

    From 1872, the hand-drawn> position sheets were used to create printable map editions, which from 1901 were also referred to as the "Topographical Map of Bavaria 1:25 000".
    From 1883 the monochrome printed hatched maps became the two-color versions with a black floor plan and brown contour lines; parallel to this there are monochrome maps with contour lines until 1894. From around 1901, the map sheets for the waterway network were given a third color: blue.
    The map series is not completed because the page layout is reworked in the 1950s to the nationally agreed page layout.
    From 1960 the 558 map sheets of the Bavarian area share of the (new) topographic map 1:25 000 are completely available as a three-color edition. In the following decades, the appearance developed into the modern TK25 and> ATK25.

    Earlier editions of these maps are available as TIF raster data in a resolution of 400dpi.

    Overview (1954)
    Topographic map of Bavaria 1:25 000
    (Position sheets, pdf, 1 MB)

    Overview (1981)
    Topographic map 1:25 000 (pdf, 1.1 MB)

    Topographic atlas (half sheets) 1:50 000

    After the> Topographical Atlas of the Kingdom of Bavaria 1:50 000 was completed in 1867, the large-format sheets were "cut in half". From now on the revised Atlas half-sheets will appear with the addition "West" or "East". From 1896 onwards, the altitude information is based on sea level. In the "colored edition" from 1903 the floor plan is shown in black, the contour lines in brown and the water in blue.
    At the same time, in 1913, the production of a "German Map 1:50 000" began, which in 1923 was declared a task for the federal states. The boundaries of these "degree division maps" are formed by meridians and parallel circles (ʎ = 20 geographical minutes of longitude and φ = 12 geographical minutes of latitude). The copperplate is done in three colors: floor plan in black, contour lines in brown and water in blue. With the beginning of the Second World War, the processing is stopped.
    Although only 14 Bavarian sheets are completed (including 6 sheets from the Rhineland-Palatinate area), the German map 1:50 000 shows the transition from the topographic atlas to today's> UK50 and TK50.

    Earlier editions of these maps are available as TIF raster data in a resolution of 400dpi.

    Overview
    Half sheets of the Topographic Atlas of Bavaria / German map 1:50 000 (pdf, 836 kB)

    Map of the German Empire 1: 100 000

    In 1878 Prussia, Württemberg, Saxony and Bavaria decide to work on a joint "Map of the German Empire 1: 100,000". The new production (copper engraving) of the 80 sheets of the Bavarian processing area takes place in the years 1883 - 1902. The topographic atlas of the Kingdom of Bavaria 1:50 000 serves as the basis.
    In addition to the monochrome version, Bavaria also publishes various multicolored editions. In addition, so-called "Large leaves"Composed of four single sheets of the Reichkarte. With a red overprint of the administrative boundaries, these special maps form the"Administrative map of Bavaria 1: 100,000".
    From 1950 the modern topographic map 1: 100,000 developed nationwide. Of the 41 frame sheets published by Bavaria, ten newly produced sheets appeared in the following years. The rest are published as so-called "makeshift editions" by reducing 4 sheets of TK50 each. Only the> ATK100 will show the entire Bavarian area on a scale of 1: 100,000 with uniform map graphics.

    Earlier editions of these maps are available as TIF raster data in a resolution of 400dpi.

    Overview
    Map of the German Empire 1: 100,000 / large sheets 1: 100,000 / administrative map of Bavaria 1: 100,000 (pdf, 932 kB)

    Topographic overview map 1: 200,000

    As early as 1900, the Prussian land survey published a multi-colored topographic overview and traffic map 1: 200,000 of the German Empire (pdf, 3.4MB). Four sheets of the Reichkarte 1: 100,000 each form the basis for a map sheet 1: 200,000. After 1927, the map series is no longer systematically updated.
    Between 1963 and 1967 the Institute for Applied Geodesy in Frankfurt (today BKG, Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy) produced the 12 Bavarian sheets of the new, Germany-wide topographic overview map 1: 200,000. These sheets will be updated in the Bavarian State Surveying Office by 1998. The BKG then takes over the processing of the Bavarian map sheets 1: 200,000.

    Earlier editions of the Bavarian sheets from the topographic overview map 1: 200,000 are available as TIF raster data in a resolution of 400dpi.

    Overview (1965)
    Topographic overview map 1: 200,000 of the Bavarian area (pdf, 2.7MB)

    Map of southwest Germany, 1: 250 000

    The production period for the 25 map sheets 1: 250,000 of the south-west of Germany begins in 1857 and ends in 1868. For the most part, the processing of the Bavarian sheets is based on the topographical atlas 1:50,000 updated.
    The map content, engraved in copper, represents the terrain by means of mountain hatching. In order to keep the map clear, smaller places are not shown. Between 1910 and 1940, most of the Bavarian map sheets were also printed in color in green (forests), red (streets) and blue (borders).

    Monochrome and multicolored editions of the historical sheets from the map of Southwest Germany 1: 250,000 are available as TIF raster data in a resolution of 400dpi.

    Overview
    Map of Southwest Germany 1: 250 000 (pdf, 1.9MB)

    General map of Bavaria 1: 500,000

    The Free State of Bavaria can be completely reproduced on a scale of 1: 500,000 (ÜK500) on an overview map. From 1971 the earlier "Overview and traffic map 1: 500,000 of Bavaria" was replaced by a modernized version. In addition to a normal physical edition of the ÜK500, a so-called OH edition (pdf, 3.7MB) (orohydrographic edition) is published for scientific and planning purposes, which emphasizes the water network and the contour lines including hillshading.
    Current output types of the> ÜK500 are, in addition to the physical normal output, an output with landscape names and an administrative border output.

    Earlier editions of the topographic overview map 1: 500,000 are available as TIF raster data in a resolution of 400dpi.

    Overview (display area)
    Overview map 1: 500 000 (pdf, 0.98MB)

    How to get our products

    Raster data

    You will only receive raster data from historical editions of topographic maps on
    State Office for Digitization, Broadband and Surveying
    E-mail:
    [email protected]
    Tel .: 089 / 2129-1111
    Fax: 089 / 2129-1113

    Custom-made products as plot editions

    Custom-made items as plot editions are also only available on
    State Office for Digitization, Broadband and Surveying
    E-mail:
    [email protected]
    Tel .: 089 / 2129-1111
    Fax: 089 / 2129-1113

    Advice / opinion

    Please note the current regulations on the customer service page.

    Product specifications

    
    Historical maps of BavariaScales from 1: 25,000 to 1: 500,000
    Original useArea-wide cartographic reproduction of Bavaria in various scales for administration, planning and the military
    Current usesHistorical research (settlement geography, name research), local history and local history
    Available asRaster data in TIF format, uncompressed
    resolutionTK25, TK50: 300 dpi
    all other map series: 400 dpi
    Topographic map of Bavaria 1: 25000 (position sheets 1: 25000)
    approx. 1872-1960
    Initially a rectangular map image approx. 38cm x 38cm ≙ approx. 9.5 km x 9.5 km in nature;
    Initially Soldner's polyhedron projection, later degree division sheets (10 'x 6'), Prussian polyhedron projection
    Topographic map 1: 25000
    from around 1960
    Degree division sheets in the geographical section of 10 minutes of longitude x 6 minutes of latitude
    trapezoidal map of approx. 48cm x 44cm≙ approx. 12km x 11km in nature; The surface area changes between 139 km² in southern Bavaria and 132 km² in northern Bavaria.
    Angular, transversal cylinder image according to Gauß-Krüger
    Topographic Atlas 1: 50000 (in half sheets)
    approx. 1867-1960
    Rectangular map image of approx. 40cm x 50cm ≙ approx. 20km x 25km in nature;
    Figure: Bonne's fake cone projection, Laplace earth ellipsoid, projection cone touches ellipsoid at φ = 49 °, old Munich observatory is prime meridian
    German map 1: 50000
    approx. 1916-1927
    Geographical sheet cut of 20 'x 12' (expanded to 30 'x 15' from 1931)
    Prussian polyhedron projection, Bessel earth ellipsoid
    Map of the German Empire 1: 100 000
    approx. 1883-1960
    30 'x 15' geographic sheet cut; monochrome and multi-colored hatching card
    Prussian polyhedron projection, Bessel earth ellipsoid

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    State Office for Digitization,
    Broadband and surveying
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    80538 Munich

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