How do I manage the time in NEET

NEET - young people: extent of the problem, characteristics and strategies for action

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1 NEET - young people: extent of the problem, characteristics and strategies for action All we NEET is ...? Barriers and opportunities for young people in education and work Dennis Tamesberger (AK OÖ) Vienna, May 27, 2015

2 Overview How many young people in Austria are affected by NEET status? What are the socio-structural characteristics of NEET young people? What are the causes of an increased NEET risk? What strategies are there to lower the NEET rate?

3 Unemployment rate vs. NEET rate calculated as a proportion of d. Potential workforce that is currently unemployed Youth unemployment rate employed (worked at least one hour for pay in the reference week) unemployed (looking for work and possible to take up work in the next two weeks) unemployed (not looking for a job and / or not available) AND not in (training) education or Training NEET rate employed (worked at least one hour for payment in the reference week) unemployed (looking for a job and possible to take up work in the next two weeks) unemployed (not looking for a job and / or not available) AND not in education or training calculated as a proportion d.Adolescents who are not in employment, education or training unemployed in education or training Unemployed in education or training Source: Adapted from Eurofound 2012, own illustration

4 NEET indicator definition of the BMASK study (2013): Young people between 16 and 24 years of age who are neither in employment (labor force concept) nor in education or training during the reference period. Current calculations for the 15- to 24-year-old age group. Advantages Sensible addition to youth unemployment Unemployed young people (e.g. discouraged people) are recorded Indicates social exclusion of young people Disadvantages Concept that is too broad: not a homogeneous group Concept that is too narrow: Not all young people at risk of exclusion are recorded (e.g. homeless young people, precariously employed young people) Danger of stigmatization: deficit-oriented term

5 NEET rate over time% 10.0 8.0 6.0 7.7 7.4 7.4 8.2 7.4 7.2 6.9 7.3 Average: 7.4% NEET young people ( extrapolated) 4.0 2.0 0.0-2.0 3.4 3.6 1.5 economically explainable, 9 3.1 0.9 0.2 Year 2013: 7.3% NEET young people (extrapolated) NEET rate in% -4.0 -6.0 -3.8 Real economic growth in% 5

6 Overview How many young people in Austria are affected by NEET status? What are the socio-structural characteristics of NEET young people? What are the causes of an increased risk of NEET? What strategies are there to lower the NEET rate?

7 Social structural characteristics I 100% 80% 60% NEET and migration background 11.7 6.9 28.1 9.6 100% 80% 60% NEET and education of parents 37.1 22.6 40% 20% 0% 81, 4 62.3 Non-NEET 1st generation 2nd generation NEET no migration background 40% 20% 0% 52.7 52.2 10.7 24.7 Non-NEET higher BMS / apprenticeship maximum compulsory school NEET

8 Social structural characteristics II NEET and early school leaving NEET and gender 100% 100% 80% 60% 94.6 48.8 80% 60% 49.0 54.8 40% 20% 0% 51.2 5.4 Non-NEET NEET no early school leaving 40% 20% 0% 51.0 Non-NEET 45.2 NEET early school leaving male female

9 Social structural characteristics III more frequent early school leavers more frequent migration background (especially 1st generation) more often from families with little education and low professional position of the parents more often in cities more often women in the age group of 20 to 24 year olds (pregnancy effect) social structural characteristics (migration / 1st generation) Generation, city, age, citizenship) do not have a direct effect on NEET status, but only indirectly via early school leaving.

10 Overview How many young people in Austria are affected by NEET status? What are the socio-structural characteristics of NEET young people? What are the causes of an increased risk of NEET? What strategies are there to lower the NEET rate?

11 NEET: Different people - different needs Unemployed young early school leavers 21% Older unemployed people (between 20 and 24 years of age) 8% Apprenticeship graduates in rural areas 20% Young mothers with a migration background 15.4% Young mothers without a migration background 6.8% School leavers in waiting position 9.7% Persons with illnesses / impairments 8.7%

12 Factors influencing the NEET risk Individual risk factors: Early school leaving Illness / impairments Child care Experience of unemployment Structural influencing factors: Number of jobs (economic situation) Active labor market policy

13 Overview How many young people in Austria are affected by NEET status? What are the socio-structural characteristics of NEET young people? What are the causes of an increased risk of NEET? What strategies are there to lower the NEET rate?

14 Strategies for reducing the NEET rate (individual risk factors) Reduction of early school leavers and / or weakening of the relationship between early school leavers and NEET risk. Reduction of diseases and / or weakening of the connection between diseases and NEET risk, e.g. through even better rehabilitation, a reduction in the experience of unemployment and / or a weakening of the consequences. Reduction of the duty of care. Improved childcare options so that young mothers can continue their education or work if they so choose.

15 Effects of a reduction in the individual risk factors on the NEET rate Factor starting level Reduction in the variable values ​​or the effect by. % 10% 20% 30% young women Early school leaving 9.2-0.297-0.594-0.891 Illness 1.1-0.042-0.084-0.126 Child under 3 years 7.3-0.196-0.393-0.589 Unemployment experience 4.3-0.096- 0.193-0.289 young men Early school leaving 9.5-0.199-0.397-0.596 Illness 1.0-0.036-0.073-0.109 Child under 3 years 2.9 not significant Unemployment experience 4.9-0.134-0.269-0.403 Reduction of ESL to 6, 4% (= 9.2 * 0.7)

16 Effect of measures on the structural level to reduce the NEET rate ACTUAL VALUE Reduction of the NEET rate by ..% points if the variable value or the effect of the variable changes by variable 10% 20% 30% Expenditures for active labor market policy each unemployed youth in, 7652-0.240-0.480-0.721 Number of registered vacancies per 1000 people of working age 7.7174-0.220-0.439-0.659

17 Active labor market policy increases equal opportunities

18 Conclusion Austria has one of the lowest NEET rates in the EU BUT there is a need for action: individual fate (experience categories of Jahoda's gainful employment) economic costs e.g. Eurofund (2012): Loss of income and individual transfer payments for Austria per NEET youth, negative social and democratic consequences

19 NEET young people's expectations of the landscape of offers Advice and concrete help (knowing how to proceed) suitable offers (corresponding to their own wishes) that make sense / generate benefits High demands on advisors and trainers (relationship level, trusting relationship, appreciation, eye level -Communication e.g. dealing with individual situations (e.g. addiction, care obligations), work even with poor grades, lower performance level due to illness, generally high entitlement to justice Fair chances: ... I would perhaps start a company in which you really don't just look at the grades. Where you really only look at the work at the beginning and then first at the grades, i.e. at the certificates. And really enforce that because it's hard to find an apprenticeship with the grades and such an apprenticeship. So it is often so that the notes are to blame. (T24)

20 I am available for questions and suggestions: Bacher, J., Braun, J., Burthscher-Mathis, S., Dlabaja, C., Lankmayer, T., Leitgöb, H., Stadlmayr, M., Tamesberger, D. (2014): Support of the labor market target group NEET, BMASK (ed.): Social policy study series. Volume 17. Vienna: Verlag des ÖGB. Koblbauer et al. (2015): Young people neither in employment, nor in training: A comparison of federal states in Austria. Research paper. Linz: JKU. Study and further references available at: Register NEET Project - Young People