What is meant by ovoviviparous

Conservation glossary biology
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Some of the technical terms explained here can also be found on other glossary pages.

A.
abiotic
′ Inanimate ′: Abiotic Environmental factors are the soil, water, air and climatic conditions of a Ecosystemthat affect its organisms; Opposite: biotic (B.).
 
Abundance
from Latin. abundantia = 'Abundance': in ecology the population density, i.e. the number of individuals of a species in their habitat.
 
adult
adult, sexually mature (H: lat.)
 
adventurous
′ Added ′: Adventive Animal or plant species were mostly introduced.
 
adaptation
Adaptation. (H: lat.)
 
Aculeata
Stinging: the hymenoptera (Hymenoptera) with a wasp waist, the females of which have a poison sting.
 
Agamogony
asexual or vegetative reproduction; Opposite: (Gamogony). (H: old gr.)
 
Aggregation
Sham society: a collection of animals that is not socially determined, but comes about independently of one another through the simultaneous use of the same place (suitable for a purpose), e.g. a feeding or drinking place, a sleeping or wintering place, a nesting place or a hiding place. Insects nesting in the ground or in dead wood e.g. B. are mostly "loners" (solitary)even if they occur there in large numbers. For a collection of nests one should use the term Aggregation or. Nest aggregation do not use as nests are not aggregate can.
A nest collection is also called in German colony or. Breeding colony denotes, which again does not mean a collection of nests, but nesting individuals of the same species; in English, however, means one colony moreover a state semi-social (S.), primitive eusocial (P.) or highly eusocial (H) Insects.
 
aggression
"Aggression" is the use or threat of violence to assert one's own interests. These are mostly aimed directly at securing the food base or reproduction and thus ultimately the passing on of one's own genetic predisposition. For this purpose, the term "egoism of genes" was coined, which goes beyond species conservation and means the individual egoism of a living being ...
A male lion, for example, who has taken over a group of females with offspring, kills the offspring of the defenseless cubs of its predecessor in order to help its own genes to succeed.
 
allochthonous
'elsewhere', i.e. 'non-resident': Allochthonous are animal or plant species that have entered areas through human intervention in which they were not previously indigenous - that is, were introduced there intentionally or accidentally or were able to spread there. Naturalized before 1492 (the discovery of America) allochtone Types are Archaeobiota, introduced after 1492 allochtone Organisms are Neobiota; Opposite: autochthonous.
 
Allopatry, Adjective: allopatric
Occurrence of genetically different populations of a species or closely related species in separate geographical areas. Allopatric speciation consequently denotes the (usual) emergence of species in spatially separated populations. If, for example, the glaciers of an Ice Age separate areas from one another, subspecies can arise due to genetic isolation and later species whose individuals are no longer able to reproduce with one another after the end of the Ice Age. Opposites: Parapatry (P.) and Sympathy (S.).
 
Amplexus · Axillary amplexus & Lumbar amplexus
The female is gripped by a male ready to mate, clasp reflex. The Axillary amplexus is the clasping of the females in the armpit area: the males climb on their backs for this purpose, and in many species they develop oestrus on their fingers to hold on to. Characteristic for phylogenetic older amphibian species is that Lumbar amplexus: the clasping in the hip or lumbar region of the female.
 
Angiosperms
'Fruchtknotensamer', plants with seeds or flowering plants, the great majority of recent Plants. (From altgr. angion = 'Container', which means the ovary here, and sperm = 'Seed')
 
antagonist
'Counteracting', that is, adversary; Antagonists are Predators and Parasites (P., including the Parasitoids, Breeding and socialParasites).
 
anthropophilic
'loving people'; anthropophile Animal species seek closeness to humans (cultural followers).
 
Antibiosis
to put it simply: the opposite of symbiosis (S.), that is, an antagonistic relationship between individuals of different species that is detrimental to one side. Antibiosis is mainly included Parasitism and Predation (P.) in front.
 
Apomorphism, Adjective: apomorphic
'changed (derived, evolved) form feature' or non-original shape that developed from an ancestor (from old Gr. apo 'off, away' and morph 'Form, shape'). Opposite: Plesiomorphism (P.).
If two or more (monophyletic, M.) Taxa the same derived features, so the same Apomorphism exhibit, it is a Symapomorphism (Alt GR. sym 'with together') (S.).
 
Archaeobiota or. Archaeobiota
Generic term for the Archaeozoa ('ancient species'), Archaeophytes ('ancient plant species') and Archaeomycetes ('old types of mushrooms') - those types of living beings that were introduced or accidentally brought in before the discovery of America (1492) - i.e. in the Neolithic, ancient and medieval times.
 
Aesthetic
'Übersommerung', summer rest, summer sleep (H: Latin).
 
Branchling
Fledglings (especially owls and griffins) that are sitting on branches and are fed by their parents until they are fully fledged.
 
autochthonous
long-established, down-to-earth (H: oldgr.); Opposite: allochton.
 
Auto ecology (English: autecology)
Biological discipline that deals with the interactions between a species and its environment. Individual and combined effects of abiotic and biotic factors (food, light, moisture, pressure, salt content, oxygen, etc.) on individual individuals of this species are examined; their adaptations to their environment can then be described as well as their effects on their environment.
 
Auto-ecological optimum
the preferred habitat of a species under the influence of a certain environmental factor (temperature, humidity, light intensity, etc.) without Competition from individuals of other species (Interspecific competitionI.). The optimum under the influence of also competing species is that synecological optimum (S.).
 
Autotomy
Self-mutilation, e.g. B. Separation of tail parts. (H: old gr.)
 
Avifauna
'Bird world' (from lat. avis = 'Bird' and fauna = 'Wildlife')
 
Amphibians
Amphibians, cold-blooded animals that live in water and on land. Amphibians are the most pristine land vertebrates, with their bare and breathing skin they are dependent on moisture and for reproduction on water. (From altgr. amphi = 'double' and bios = 'Life')
 
autochthonous
long-established, local, down-to-earth (H: oldgr.): autochthonous Species originated in the current range or immigrated there without human intervention; Opposite: allochthonous.
 
B.
bet hedging
'Hedging Bets': Biological bet hedging means the reduced suitability of a living being under good (its typical) conditions of existence in exchange for increased suitability under stress conditions. The adaptation to a living space can be z. B. optimize by producing many small eggs and thus many offspring; larger eggs, however, give highly developed individuals a survival advantage under difficult environmental conditions. Several egg sizes meet several possible environmental conditions and thus ensure the survival of the species.
 
Bionomy
'Law of Life': The Bionomy examines and describes the regular course of life in general and in particular the regularities of the life cycles of animal species.
 
biotic
'animated'. The biotic environmental factors of one Biotopes or. Habitat are the animal and plant species there that influence a certain species, and thus the interactions between the individual species of an ecosystem; Opposite: abiotic (A.).
 
Biotope
'Living place': living space of a community (Biocenosis). The abiotic (A.) Environmental factors one Biotopes determine survivability (that auto-ecological optimum, A.) a plant or animal species.
 
Biocenosis
'Community': community of different animal and plant species that share similar environmental conditions (the same Biotope or. Habitat) and depend on one another or on each other - especially nutritionally (from ancient Greek bios = 'Life' and koinos = 'together'). Some biologists use the term Coenosis (Z). The interrelationships between living beings and with the abiotic environmental factors are in the Biocenology or. Biocenotic examined.
 
Brood Parasitism
Frequent, for cuckoos (K) a characteristic form of parasitism in which one species takes care of the brood or nurses another species (the "host species", W.) exploits for itself. One distinguishes Feed parasitism (the use of the food supplies registered by the host) and Predatory Parasitism (attacking the host larva).
 
C.
citizen science (French: science citoyenne)
'Citizen Science': voluntary or lay nature research.
 
Coevolution, also: Coevolution
'Co-evolution': the formation of characteristics through interactions between species during evolution; please refer Coevolution (K).
 
Co-speciation, also: Co-speciation
'common speciation': a form of Coevolution(Co-evolution), that is, a joint development in which the species becoming of one species determines the species becoming of another. Co-speciation most commonly described in studies of the host-parasite relationship; an example is the pubic louse (Phthirus pubis)who were using about 3.3 million years ago Phthirus gorillae had a common ancestor. Also for the development of flowering plants and (oligolectic) Bees will Co-speciation discussed. However, there is often no evidence of reciprocal influences.
 
D.
Demecology
(demos = 'People' + ecology) an outdated synonym for 'population ecology' (P.), which deals with the interactions of a population with other populations of the same or a different species as well as with their environment.
 
Desynchronization
(de = 'not, gone' + syn = 'together' + chronos = 'Time') synchronization in the true sense of the word means the simultaneous running of processes (in computer science, however, mostly 'data comparison'); Desynchronization is therefore the abolition of simultaneity, that is, non-simultaneity. She occurs z. B. one if, due to global warming, for example, plants do not bloom in the time window in which their usual flower visitors appear, which is disadvantageous for both partners. Opposite: synchronization (S.).
 
detritophagous
Detritus-eating (Detritus = organic suspended matter and sediment in water).
 
Diapause
Latency period or development rest with reduced metabolism, especially during the metamorphosis. The diapause can also be called endogenous (from within, namely genetically and hormonally) controlled Dormancy are designated. One compulsory diapause all individuals are subject to one species regardless of environmental conditions; a optional diapause however, only affects individuals or populations that are exposed to unfavorable environmental influences. In Central Europe the Diapause bridging the cold season. Insects slide out as eggs, larvae, pupae or as a finished insect (Imago). The imaginal diapause has the advantage that the insect already has the first warm spring days as Imago can use for reproduction. The possible triggering factors of a diapause are:
  • a noticeable change in the length of the day (Photoperiod);
  • low temperatures (e.g. in Central Europe);
  • Scarcity of food resources;
  • persistent drought;
  • several of these factors combined.
 
Dispersion
'Spread', 'Dispersion': optimal distribution of an animal species in suitable habitats.
 
Diversity
'Manifold', biodiversity (from lat. diversus = 'opposite'.)
 
Domestication, Domestication
'Becoming a pet', breeding animals and plants according to human criteria; natural selection (Selection) the evolution is replaced by an artificial selection. (From lat. domesticus = 'domestic')
 
Dormancy
'Sleep, rest': Developmental rest of the entire organism or only the gonads (gonads). That too endogenous (from within, namely genetically and hormonally) controlled Dormancy is also known as Diapause (see above). A exogenous (from the outside) controlled Dormancy is called Quiescence designated; this is triggered immediately, for example, by unfavorable temperatures or excessively short day lengths, and is immediately canceled when the unfavorable conditions no longer exist.
 
E.
Eclector
Automatic catcher used in biology to catch Arthropods (Insects, millipedes, crustaceans and arachnids). The specific types of eclectors - floor, tree, and flight eclectors - are each adapted to the way of life and movement of the animals to be caught.
 
Ectoparasite
'External parasite': Parasite that lives on or on its host. Ectoparasites only penetrate their host with their organs serving for food intake and feed on parts of the skin, blood or tissue fluid; Examples are lice, mosquitoes or ticks. Opposite: Endoparasite.
 
Endemic, Adjective: endemic
Native animal or plant species that only occur in a defined area (H: ancient Gr.).
 
Endochory, also: Endozoochory
'internal spread', digestive spread: spread through ingestion of fruits and excretion of undigested seeds, sub-form of Zoochory (Z)
 
endogeic
'underground': endogeic nesting species create their nests in the ground, for example in self-dug corridors or in mouse castles; Opposite: hypergic (H)
 
Endoparasite, also: Entoparasite
'Internal Parasite': Parasite that lives inside its host; Examples are tapeworms or botfly maggots. Opposite: Ectoparasite.
 
Endosymbiosis
A symbiosis (S.), where one species lives in another, e.g. B. an algae cell of the species Nephroselmis in the flagellate (Flagellants)Hatenathat the alga swallowed and its Photosensor to Photosynthesis uses. While the eating apparatus of the Flagellants When stunted, the algae grows to ten times its size and changes its cell structure.
 
entomology
The science of the articulated animals, especially the insects or insects (H: ancient Gr.). Another word that only refers to insects is "insectology"; (The first half of this word is Latin, the second again Old Greek). An entomologist is an "entomologist" or "insectologist".
 
entomophile
'Insect-loving' or 'insect-blooming': Entomophiles Flowering plants are pollinated by insects, not by the wind or z. B. from birds or bats.
 
Ethology
'Behavioral science', 'behavioral biology', the field of biology that emerged from "comparative behavioral research".
 
euryök, also: eurytop (see below); Noun: Euryokie
'broad, wide' in relation to the 'environment' or the 'place': unspecialized with regard to one or more environmental factors, environmentally tolerant or environmental generalist. Opposite: stenök or. Stenocy (S.).
 
eurytop; Noun: Eurytopia
'wide, wide' in relation to the 'place' or bioTops: eurytopic Species are in terms of their Habitats (H) Little or unspecialized, they are "habitat generalists" (have a broad "habitat scheme"). Opposite: stenotop or. Stenotopia (S.).
 
Eukaryotes
Protozoa and multicellular cells that were once made up Prokaryotes developed and in turn the ancestors of today's Protists (most original group of Eukaryotes: Algae, flagellates etc.), plants, mushrooms and animals. (H: old gr.)
 
eusocial, see also social
'good social', 'in many ways social', i.e. 'highly organized', in wide areas 'sociable' in a neutral or value-free sense. Important characteristics are the division of labor, i. H. Cooperative brood care and joint procurement of food, as well as two (or more) generations in one people or. Country. Bumblebees and many furrow bees are considered to be primitive eusocial (P.), Honey bees and stingless bees (the more tropically broadened tribe Meliponini) due to the clearly different morphology of the boxes (K) (Queen, worker etc.) as highly eusocial (H) Bees.
 
eutrophic, Noun: Eutrophy, Eutrophication
'Nutrient-rich', trophy level (T) 3: Some plants only or preferentially flourish eutrophic Floors, others just on oligotrophic, so low in nutrients. Eutrophication means 'over-fertilization'.
 
evolution
'Development', the phylogenetic advancement of animal and plant species. evolution takes place through mutation and selection.
 
F.
fauna
'Animal world', 'animal kingdom' (H: lat.).
 
Faunistics
As a branch of zoology, the study of the occurrence and distribution of animal species in a larger area
 
Fibonacci sequence
Infinite sequence of natural numbers, in which the sum of two consecutive numbers results in the following number:
0 + 1 = 1; 1 + 1 = 2; 1 + 2 = 3; 2 + 3 = 5; 3 + 5 = 8; 5 + 8 = 13; 8 + 13 = 21 ...
The ratio of consecutive numbers to each other (e.g. 16: 8 = 1.625) approaches the golden ratio (1.618033 ...) with higher numbers. The Fibonacci sequence represents a kind of growth pattern in nature and describes, among other things, the number of petals of different flowering plants.
 
flora
'Plant world', 'plant kingdom' (H: lat.).
 
G
Generalist
(Plant or) animal species that have not specialized in certain climates, food, food and / or reproduction habitats, but can use a more or less broad spectrum of food and habitats. Opposite: specialist.
 
genetics
Science of the origin of living things; in the narrower sense: heredity. (From altgr. genesis = 'Generation, origin')
 
Genotype (us)
The hereditary ones (genetic) Characteristics of a living being, in contrast to his Phenotype (us), i.e. its external appearance; Adjective: genotypic. (H: old gr.)
 
gradation
the temporary mass reproduction of an animal species, in insects such as bark beetles or locusts, in mammals lemmings or field mice.
 
Gymnosperms
'Nacktsamer', plants developed from the first seed plants (especially conifers), the exposed ("naked") seeds of which protect the embryo and the reserve materials necessary for development with a cover against drying out and other damage. (From altgr. gymnos = 'naked' and sperm = 'Seed')
 
H
halophilic
'salt-loving'
 
hemimetabol, Noun: Hemimetabolism
'(with) half transformation' or (with) incomplete development, metamorphosis (M.) without pupal stage; hemimetabolic Insects are z. B. the grasshoppers and dragonflies, whose full insects (Adults, I.) hatch directly from the larvae.
 

herbivorous, see also phytophag (Ph)
'herb-eating': herbivore Animals Herbivores or Phytophages) are herbivores. (The carnivores or predators feed on them = Predators). Among the hymenoptera bees are vegetarians, but not in the literal sense as consumers of pollen, nectar and oil herbivorous; it is therefore better known as phytophag. Wasps are hanging carnivorous or. zoophag.
 
Hermaphroditism
Hermitism, hermaphroditism, the (regular) occurrence of double-sex individuals in an animal or plant species: every conspecific has both sexes and forms both male and female germ cells. In the vegetable kingdom is Hermaphroditism widespread, there are two types of seed plants:monocial, M.) Plants have both male and female flowers on one plant; "Genuine hermaphrodite" plants, on the other hand, have only one type of flower, in which both male and female sexual organs are located.
Note: The name is derived from Hermaphroditus, a figure of Greek mythology, and connects Hermes, the patron god of traffic, merchants and shepherds, with Aphrodite, the goddess of love, beauty and sensual desire.
 
Herpetology
The science of the amphibians ('amphibians') and reptiles ('crawling animals') (H: ancient Gr.). An amphibian and reptile animal scientist is therefore a Herpetologist.
 
Hibernation
'Wintering', hibernation, hibernation (H: Latin).
 
highly eusocial
to the highest degree eusocial (E.). Different to primitive eusocial Show insects highly eusocial Species marked morphological differences between the queen and her workers, there is an exchange of feed, and the state lives for several growing seasons (if the state is not destroyed). Only the "classic" honey bees (Apis spec.) and the stingless honeybees (Meliponidae or. Meliponini) count as highly eusocial Bees, bumblebees and some furrow bees as primitive eusocial (P.) Wild bees.
 
holometabolic, Noun: Holometabolism
(with) complete transformation (metamorphosis, M.) from larva to full insect (Imago, I.) including the pupal stage
 
homoiotherm
'same warmth', i.e. warm-blooded (H: old gr.). Birds and mammals are homoiotherm, d. H. they maintain almost the same temperature - in contrast to the cold-blooded amphibians and reptiles. Synonym: idiothermal; Antonym: poikilotherm.
 
Hybridization
Bastardization (H: oldgr.)
 
hygrophil
moisture-loving. (H: lat.)
 
hypergic
'Above ground': hypergic nesting species create their nests above the surface of the earth, for example under moss cushions, in tree or wall holes etc .; Opposite: endogeic (E.)
 
Hypermetamophosis
multiple metamorphosis, so one Metamophosis (M.), in which the morphological characteristics of an animal change significantly several times in the course of its individual development. An example are the triungulins and other stages of the oil beetle; these parasitize bees.
 
Hyperparasitoid
secondary Parasitoid (PA), So a Parasitoid, the one other Parasitoid infested.
 
I.
Idiobiont
'independent, individual living being': IdiobionteParasitoids (P.) - d. H. whose egg-laying females - paralyze their host (W.) through poison from their defensive sting and thus prevent its further development. The immobilized host survives protected from Predators (P.) in its typical hiding place before the (usually Ecto-, E.) Parasitoid eventually kills his host. Opposite: Coinobiont (K).
 
Imago, the; Plural: Adults
The adult insect after completed metamorphosis (M.). The larval phase (Larval phase) (L.) many insects last much longer than their respective ones Imaginal phasewhich is used exclusively for reproduction. (H: lat.)
 
indigenous
'native, indigenous' (from lat. indigena): autochthonous (A.), i.e. permanently occurring in an area without human influence; indigenous or. autochthonous So species are the opposite of Archaeobiota (A.), Neobiota (N) and bred or cultivated species.
 
invasive
'penetrating': Invasive Organisms are alien species. alien species), which - through or without human influence - have overcome a spreading barrier between their previous area and an area that is new to them and are spreading there. As invasive apply especially those Neobiota (Neomycetes, Neophytes, Neozoa), i.e. species that have been and are being introduced into habitats that are new to them since the discovery of America.
Are problematic Invadersbecause they can displace native species. This is possible through more offspring, i.e. a larger population and thus stronger competition for the same resources, through better adaptation to the habitat (a broader ecological niche, N or. Euryokie, E.), by predation (P.), if the prey is under pressure for lack of co-evolution (K) has not grown, or through together with the Invaders introduced diseases. Examples of diseases that endanger the population are the cancer plague, which was introduced with the American crayfish species and destroys the European crayfish, or the varroa mite, which is associated with the "Eastern" or "Asian honeybee". (Apis cerana) was introduced and not only endangered domesticated honey bee colonies (which themselves Invaders are), but also the reintroduction of the native dark honey bee (Apis m. Mellifera).
 
Isolate
'Isolated'; isolated occurrence of a species, separated from the distribution of the main population. (H: lat.)
 
isotherm
'Equal Warmth'; Line of equal temperature in the landscape. A 10 degree isotherm e.g. B. is therefore a borderline at which an annual average of 10 ° Celsius is reached. Global warming leads to a shift in the Isotherms (and thus of habitats of many species) to the north.
 
J
juvenile
youthful, not yet sexually mature (H: lat.)
 
K
Cainism
In ornithology the denotes Cainism the genetically fixed, therefore compulsory killing of a younger sibling by an older one (after Cain's fratricide of Abel in the Old Testament of the Bible). It can be seen especially among birds of prey.
 
carnivorous, carnivorous
'carnivorous': carnivore Animals - resp. Carnivores or Zoophages (Z) - are carnivores (Predators) or scavengers. Among the hymenoptera are the wasps carnivorous or. zoophag, Bees though herbivorous (H) or. phytophag (Ph).
 
caste
a hierarchically defined social group, as it is known in western countries, especially from India. Belonging to a caste determines the status, possible spouse and function or occupation of an individual.
The division into box is also based on biology eusocial (E.) Animal species, especially colonizing insects such as bumblebees and honey bees, are used.
 
Klepton
'The stolen': The herpetologists Dubois & Günther designated 1982 with Klepton an unusual hybrid with three sets of chromosomes, namely the pond frog (Rana esculenta). These triploid Animals carry the complete genetic information of one of the two parent species, so they have "stolen" a set of chromosomes - hence the term from ancient Greek. Some taxonomists designate one Klepton by the abbreviation kl. between the scientific genus and the species name.
 
Kline, Ecoclinic
Greek for 'inclination': the continuous directional change of a biological characteristic analogous to an ecological gradient (the increase or decrease of a variable over a certain distance, for example to the geographical latitude or the mountain height). Examples are the increasing or decreasing body size of a species, gradual changes in the size or shape of body parts (beak, wings, etc.) or the color.
 
Co-evolution, Coevolution, Coevolution, Co-evolution
'Co-development or simultaneous development': Development through mutual adaptations of two interacting species during their tribal history. The mutual selection pressure leads to co-adaptations (mutual adaptations), for example in the eyesight and the speed of reaction and speed of walking of cheetahs and antelopes.
 
Coinobiont
'common living being': CoinobionteParasitoids (P.) - d. H. whose females - paralyze their host (W.) not: This one survives and continues to develop during the (usually Endo-, E.) Parasitoid feeds on the host's body, but spares vital organs and only kills the host at the end of its own development. Opposite: idiobiont (I.).
 
colony, Nesting colony
In German, this word usually designates an accumulation caused by favorable external conditions (AggregationA.) of individuals of the same (solitary) species; at social (S.) or. eusocial (E.) Bees - especially bumblebees - but it is sometimes used synonymously for 'state' or 'people' - probably as a loan translation of the English word colony, which is also a nest community adult Females and even a hierarchically structured (centrally controlled by a queen) state can mean.
 
Comfort behavior
Behaviors that either serve personal hygiene (cleaning, scratching, shaking and scrubbing, water, dust or sunbathing) or the metabolism, especially the oxygen supply (stretching, yawning) "Comfort behavior" is sometimes further developed as a secondary to "expressive behavior", with which conspecifics can be influenced, that is, which serves to facilitate communication (courtship, threatening, appeasing, etc.).
 
Commensal or. Commensalism
(From lat. cum = 'with' and canteen = 'Table') 'table companion, blackhead' or 'mitessen': Commensalism is 'food usufructuary', that is, sharing in the food of another species without this suffering from it; a Commensal is a species that benefits unilaterally from the diet of another species.
    Commensalism is a special case of Probiosis (P.) or the symbiosis (S.), if one understands them neutrally - as in the US ecological literature.
 
Comment fight
According to fixed "rules" running fight with a conspecific with the aim of pushing him out of the area or by a potential sexual partner or to rise in the hierarchy. The purpose of the "rules" is to prevent injuries from biting, kicking, bumping, etc. (From the French comment = 'like')
 
congeneric, also: congeneric; Noun: Congeneric, also: Congeneric
Are plant or animal species congenericif they belong to the same biological genus (Genus) belong, that is, they are members of the same species.
 
Connectivity
'Connectedness': in computer science, the equipping of devices with hardware interfaces and the ability of operating systems to establish a connection between a computer and networks; in biology or anatomy the connection of nerve cells, in ecology the connection between habitats ("habitat network") and populations.
 
con-specific, also: con-specific; Noun: Conspecificity, also: Conspecificity
'Mitartlich': are individuals or populations of a plant or animal species con-specificif they belong to the same biological species (Species) belong, so are conspecifics.
 
Coprophagia
Eating excrement (H: old Gr.)
 
copulation
Mating, sexual union
 
Co-speciation
please refer Co-speciation (C.)
 
Reptile
'Reptile'. Sometimes they become colloquial too Amphibians incorrectly referred to as "reptiles".
 
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC)
or English cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC): organic chemical substances made of carbon and hydrogen that form a waxy layer on the surface (Cuticle) cover all insects and protect them from drying out. At the same time or secondarily they serve intraspecifically for gender recognition and (especially in insect states) for the exchange of information and interspecificly for species recognition, i.e. the enemy or prey recognition and camouflage of a parasite from its host. CHC profiles are species-specific and therefore a determinant of an insect species.
 
L.
larva
Life or form of development between the egg and youth phase - z. B. in amphibians the tadpole. Larvae usually look very different from the adult animals of their kind and often live differently or in different places.
 
Larval phase
In the development of an insect, the phase between the egg and pupa. The larval phase of many insects lasts much longer than their respective ones Imaginal phasewhich is used exclusively for reproduction.
 
Storm of life
Name for a 3–5 meter high, mostly square wooden construction devised by nature conservation laypeople, which is intended to offer living spaces, hiding places and sunbathing areas, breeding and wintering quarters to as many animal groups as possible on several floors: while on the ground level there is shelter for amphibians and reptiles, hedgehogs and bumblebees is created, insects (wild bees, wasps) and spiders should find nesting and hunting opportunities on the next two or three levels. The floors above offer living and nesting space for birds and bats. Criticism:
As a rule, "storms of life" have several weaknesses: 1. Dodging nature conservation upwards is generally not a solution, nor is it a substitute for expanding it into an area; 2. If the concentration of species protection measures on one or two square meters does not promise success, since hardly all animal groups occur in the same place and can be protected there; 3. "Storms of life" are regularly filled with unsuitable nesting aids: Hollow bricks for hardware stores in which a bee or wasp never nests, wood wool, straw, brushwood etc .; 4. Many wooden scaffolding have hardly any constructive (and also no chemical) wood protection and give an indication of their imminent end soon after their creation.
 
Limacology
Snail Science (from old Gr. leimax = 'Snail' and logos = 'Teaching')
 
Limikolen
Popular scientific collective term for 'waders and waders'.
 
lithophile
'stone-loving'; the females one lithophile Species of bees prefer to live on stony terrain and build so-called free nests on rock (for comparison: lithograph = 'Lithography').
 
M.
Malaise trap
Insect trap named after the Swedish entomologist René Malaise (1892-1978) in the form of a large tent: When flying insects fly into the lower, dark area, they orient themselves phototactically (Ph) to the diagonally stretched white fabric blanket and at their highest point reach a collecting vessel filled with alcohol.
 
mating ball
Mating ball or ball of mating consisting of a female and several males who want to mate with this female. Mating balls are regularly observed among snakes, but also z. B. in nest collections of ground-nesting bees.
 
matrifilial
From mother and daughter; a matrifilial The bee colony consists of the mother and daughter generation, i.e. of queen (s) and workers.
 
Mesolecty, mesolectic
Mesolectic Wild bee species collect pollen from flowering plants from only a few plant families. The term used by some authors, the Mesolecty is an intermediate form of collective preference between Monolecty or. Oligolecty (extreme specialization) and Polylecty (lack of specialization) and as such even more blurred than the two extremes.
 
metamorphosis
'Conversion' of a larva into the sex animal or finished insect, that too Imago is called. There are two metamorphosis-Types: bees, wasps, flies, beetles and butterflies etc. are holometabolic Insects, d. H. they make a full one metamorphosis including pupation by; hemimetabolic Insects such as grasshoppers or dragonflies do not have a pupal stage. The term metamorphosis is colloquially also in a figurative sense (as metaphor) used as a synonym for 'metamorphosis'.
 
Mimesis
Imitation of inconspicuous details of the environment in order to remain hidden. Example: the imitation of bark or leaves on some insect species.
 
mimicry
'Deceptive signal imitation': Imitation of another living being or a part or a property of it in order to attract attention and thus gain an advantage that the imitated living being has primarily developed. The most famous form of mimicry is the visual mimicry (V.): The conspicuous black and yellow stripes of some hoverfly and bee species imitate, for example, a wasp and thus protect it from predators. Another form is that olfactory mimicry (O). The imitation of the behavior of another animal is known as Behavioral mimicry. See also: Mimesis.
 
Monoandry
′ With only one male ′: The (temporary or permanent) coexistence of several females with only one male; Opposite: Monogyny ('only one female').
 
monogamous, Noun: monogamy
The (temporary or permanent) coexistence of an individual of both sexes, usually for the purpose of joint brood care; Over 90% of the bird species are monogamous. One distinguishes Monogyny ('only one female') and Monoandry ('only one male'). Opposite: polygamy (P.). (H: old gr.)
 
monogynous, Plural: Monogyny
′ With only one female ′: State-forming insects (such as bumblebees or honey bees) are monogynousif only one female, namely the queen, is in the nest. Opposite: oligogynous (O)
 
Monolecty, monolectical
Monolectic Wild bee species only collect pollen from one type of plant on whose occurrence they are completely dependent. The collecting specialization of Monolecty is an extreme form of Oligolecty; Opposite: Mesolecty and Polylecty.
 
monophag, Noun: Monophagy
'Eating one': living only from one plant or animal species or genus. Monophagy occurs mainly in herbivores as well as parasitic and parasitoid insects. There are three levels or degrees:
  1. Diet of only one kind
  2. Diet of some species of a genus
  3. Diet of all species of a genus
A similar term is the Oligophagy (O), the opposite is that Polyphagia (P.).
 
monospecific genus
Genus to which only one species is assigned.
 
mutation
'Change', 'change': the sudden, undirected and accidental change in the genome of a body cell. Together with the selection does she do that evolution out. (From lat. mutatio = 'Change, change')
 
Mutualism
'Reciprocity': in ecology the (positively evaluating form of) symbiosis (S.), i.e. the coexistence of individuals of two species for mutual benefit.
(In US literature is symbiosis to understand neutrally, it closes the there Commensalism (K) and even the Parasitism (P.) a.)
 
Myiasis
"Fly disease": Infestation of the skin with fly larvae, as can occasionally be observed in domestic rabbits.
 
Mycorrhiza
The roots of "higher" plants (e.g. trees) that are colonized by fungi in their bark zone.
 
N
Neobiota, Singular: Neobiont
'new living beings': generic term for the Neozoa ('new animal species', singular: Neozoon), Neophytes ('new plant species', singular: neophyte) and Neomycetes ('new mushroom species', singular: Neomycete) - those invasive species of living beings that have been introduced or accidentally introduced since the discovery of America (1492).
 
Neozoon, Plural: Neozoa
Established Neozoa are animal species that after the year 1492, i.e. the rediscovery of America by Christopher Columbus, with the direct or indirect participation of humans, got into a certain area, into which they could not have reached in recent times due to their own dispersal potential and where they have been for a long time , d. H. have lived for more than 25 years or at least 3 generations. (Vegetable new citizens are Neophytes, are new types of mushrooms Neomycetes, the generic term for the three groups Neobiota.)
 
Niche, ecological
Task or function that an animal or plant species performs in the community of a biotope. An "ecological niche" is therefore not defined as a physical place, but - to use a marketing term for the economy as a comparison - an ecological "market niche", which is caused by a type of e.g. B. is occupied by specialized habitat or food requirements, if it can thereby avoid competition from other species. When the first animals were able to conquer the land at least 400 million years ago, this was their skill ecological nichethat other marine species could not use.
 
nitrophil
′ Loves nitrogen ′: Nitrophiles Plants prefer those rich in nitrates or nitrogen Biotopes.
 
Nominal breed or. Nominate subspecies
The subspecies of an animal or plant species that is the first, i.e. H. before further subspecies. In the scientific name of a nominate subspecies, the second and third words are identical. Strictly speaking, the term "nominal breed" is incorrect, since a "breed" is not a subspecies but the result of artificial (human) breeding.
 
O
ecology
'Environmental doctrine', the doctrine of the interrelationships between living beings and their animate and inanimate environment (H: ancient Gr.). The term was defined in 1866 by Ernst Haeckel, a German biologist and Darwinist. A professional in environmental science is a ecologist.
 
ecological amplitude
In physics and technology one becomes amplitude defined as the maximum deviation of an oscillation or wave from an arithmetic mean. The (sometimes used) term the ecological amplitude describes the extent to which a plant or animal species can exist according to its ecological potency (see below) under the influence of a certain environmental factor (temperature, humidity, light intensity, etc.).
 
ecological potency, ecological tolerance
the ability of a species to exist under the influence of a certain environmental factor (temperature, humidity, light intensity, etc.). The ecological potency is hardly ever exhausted, as competing species do synecological optimum (S.) limit - so it is not identical to the ecological niche (N).
 
Ecomorphs, also: Ecomorphs
the typical shape of several for a defined ecological niche Taxa, d. H. the same morphological Expression of Taxa at locations in the same ecological niche (N). The term was introduced by the American herpetologist Ernest Edward Williams †.
 
Economy
'Economy' as well as 'economy, frugality', in biology more economical use of one's own energy in order to ensure that the energy expenditure, especially for finding and consuming food, does not exceed the energy consumption required for this. A predator z. B. prefers to hunt the prey that is easiest to capture, namely where it is easiest to capture. (From lat. oeconomia = 'Division, order, administration')
 
Ecosystem
System from one Biocenosis (B.), i.e. interacting individuals of several plant and animal species, and the abiotic (A.) Environmental factors one Biotopes (B.).
 
Ecosystem service, also: Ecosystem service
This somewhat cumbersome term is not an ecological technical term, it rather describes the benefits or advantages of ecological systems (of nature) for humans. The English (or international) name, ecosystem service(ESS), is defined as 'the benefits people obtain from ecosystems' or 'the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life'. An example of one Ecosystem service is the pollination of (food) plants by insects, i.e. flies, beetles, butterflies, wasps and wild bees. What is not meant (although sometimes so misunderstood) are human assistance and services for the ecosystem.
 
Ecotone
Saumbiotop (H: old gr.)
 
olfactory mimicry
'olfactory imitation': imitation of the smell of a (different) animal species, especially a host (W.). Some cuckoo bees imitate the smell of their host bees and some orchids the smell of female bees ready to mate. Another, more popular form of mimicry (M.) is the visual mimicry (V.).
 
oligogynous
State-forming insects are oligogynouswhen there are only a few females, namely queens, in the nest. Opposite: monogynous (M.).
 
Oligolecty, oligolectic
'Selection less, collecting specialization in a few (plants)': Oligolectic Species of bees collect pollen exclusively from flowering plants of one plant family, in extreme cases one plant species (also: Monolecty) (symbiosis). Since they cannot switch to other forage plants, they locally die out without their forage plant (s) even if ideal nesting sites are available. In Germany, 30% of the nest-seeking wild bees are oligolectic. Opposite: polylectic (P.).
 
oligophag, Noun: Oligophagy
′ Eating little ′: only living on a few plant or animal species or genera. The concept of Oligophagy is a bit fuzzy: it can refer to the use of some plant or animal species of a genus (which is the Monophagy 2nd degree corresponds), but also in species of several genera. Opposite: polyphagous or. Polyphagia (P.).
 
ontogenesis
Development from the fertilized egg cell to sexual maturity (from old Gr. on (t) = 'being' and genesis = 'Creation'). The opposite is phylogenesis or. Phylogeny.
 
ontogenesis, Ontogeny
Development of an individual being or an individual organism from the fertilized egg cell to sexual maturity (from Altgr. on (t) = the 'being' or 'being' and genesis = 'Creation'). Opposite: phylogenesis (Ph).
"The phylogenesis is in the ontogenesis contain "states that the stages of development of a fetus (also of humans) reflects the millions of years long development up to this species, for example through the temporary development of gills, which are then regressed again.
 
Oophagia
'Egg eating': Destruction of the eggs of competing females, for example in cudgel bees (Ceratina) and especially with bumblebees (Bomb)when a queen has laid her last eggs and the former workers try to eat as many eggs from their competitors as possible and bring as many male offspring into the world as possible.
 
Ornithology
'Ornithology' (H: ancient Gr.); an ornithologist is an "ornithologist".
 
oviparous
'laying eggs', 'giving birth through eggs'. Opposite: viviparous = 'viviparous'. (H: lat.)
 
ovoviviparous
'egg-viviparous': term for giving birth to young animals that develop in egg shells in the womb and only hatch shortly before or at birth; earlier oviposition would be too lossy due to the climate, the substrate (soil conditions) or the enemy pressure.
 
P.
Pedogenesis
Reproduction in a juvenile stage
 
Parabiosis
'Side life': relationship between two organisms (Parabionts)that either only benefits one partner without harming the other, or none of the parties involved. The Parabiosis thus differs from the symbiosis (S.) and from Parasitism (see below). There Parabiosis occurs naturally as a coalescence of female and male fish as well as a defect ("Siamese twins"), is the designation for a corresponding relationship between different species Probiosis (see below) common.
 
Parapatry, Adjective: parapatric
'Sub-Fatherland': occurrence of species or subspecies in areas of distribution that border one another; isolated gene exchange is possible, but so rare that reproductive isolation eventually leads to speciation. Opposites: Allopatry (A.) and Sympathy (S.).
 
parasite or. Parasitism
'Parasitic' or 'parasiticism': a parasite lives as Ectoparasite on or at his host (= 'Victim') or as Endoparasite (also: Entoparasite) in his host and damages it in order to feed and / and reproduce. They are particularly interesting for entomologists Cuckoos (e.g. cuckoo bees) that live on the offspring of their host species or their food supplies or have their offspring raised by a host species:
  • A Breeding parasite (also: Feed parasite) secretly lays its eggs in the brood cells of other bee species, its larva first sucks out the host egg or kills the host larva that has already hatched and then consumes its provisions.
  • A Parasitoid (also: predatory parasite) initially uses the living host larva without preventing their development; but later he kills and eats them. Example: parasitic wasps.
  • A Social parasite also does not build nests, he leaves his brood from bees of another, namely eusocial (E.) Raise species and damage them by reducing their reproductive success.
  • A Kleptoparasite ('Theft parasite') steals the food or nesting areas of other animal species. Sea eagles or skuas z. For example, seabirds steal the fish food they catch. Following the Anglo-American model Kleptoparasite also wrongly with Breeding or. Feed parasite synonymized.

Parasitoid
A parasitic parasitic parasitic attack on its victim, but ultimately kills it.
 
parthenogenesis
'Virgin generation': the emergence of a living being from an unfertilized egg. In the case of bees, the males (drones) are usually asexual.
Etymological note: The term goes back to ancient Greek parthenos = 'Virgo' and genesis = 'Birth, origin'; the 'virgin' is the epithet of the Greek goddess Athena Parthenus and named for her temple, the famous one Parthenon.
 
perennial
'through the year'; persistent, constant (H: lat.)
 
Ph
Phenology
'Apparition Lore'; Doctrine of the seasonal-periodically recurring developmental phenomena in nature. (H: old gr.)
 
Phenotype (us)
Appearance of a living being in contrast to his Genotype (us), i.e. his genetic make-up; Adjective: phenotypically. (H: old gr.)
 
Philopatry
'Love for the Fatherland': loyalty to the breeding site. Females nest at their own place of birth because this has proven itself as a nest location.
 
Phobotaxis
'Fearful change of location': fear reaction and escape from the source area of ​​a fear-inducing factor.
 
Phonotaxis
'Sound-guided change of location': sound-oriented locomotion, in particular: running to a sexual partner on the basis of the singing.
 
Phoresia
The use of another living being as a means of transport. Some mites e.g. For example, bees only use them for a change of location, while others parasitize them by sucking on them or eating their pollen supply.
 
Phototaxis, Adjective: phototactic
'Light-guided change of location': movement controlled by differences in illuminance, in the case of positive phototaxis towards higher, at negative phototaxis low illuminance. This behavior is demonstrated in Malaise traps (M.) exploited.
 
phytophag
'Herbivorous': Phytophagous Animals feed on living plant matter.
 
phylogenesis, Phylogeny
Tribal historical development of all living beings, certain kinship groups or certain characteristics (from ancient Gr. phyle = 'Tribe' and genesis = 'Creation'). Opposite: ontogenesis (O) = 'Development of an individual'.
"The phylogenesis is in the ontogenesis contain "states that the stages of development of a fetus (also of humans) reflects the millions of years long development up to this species, for example through the temporary development of gills, which are then regressed again.
 
phytophag, see also herbivorous (H)
'herbivorous': Phytophagous Animals feed on living plant matter, bees e.g. B. pollen and nectar, some types of flower oil.
 
Phytocenosis, a type of Biocenosis (B.)
'Plant community': the combination of plant species specific to a location with similar or identical demands on their location.
 
Plesiomorphism, Adjective: plesiomorphic
'Original shape feature' or unchanged shape that was retained during evolution, i.e. continues alongside the shape of the former ancestor (from ancient Gr. plesi 'near, neighboring' and morph 'Form, shape'). Opposite: Apomorphism (A.).
If two or more Taxa the same original features, that is, the same Plesiomorphism have, this is one Symplesiomorphism (Alt GR. sym 'with together') (S.).
 
poikilotherm
'with variable heat', i.e. alternating warmth (H: old gr.). Are amphibians and reptiles poicolotherm, d. H. their body temperature depends on the ambient temperature - in contrast to warm-blooded birds and mammals. Synonym: heterothermal; Antonyms: homoiotherm, idiothermal.
 
polygamy
Sexual relations between an individual of one sex and several individuals of the opposite sex. One distinguishes Polygyny ('Polygamy') and polyandry ('Polyandry'). The opposite is monogamy (M.). Birds are mostly monogamousSince the males are mostly involved in the care of the brood, mammals give up polygamous. (H: old gr.)
 
Polylecty, polylectic
′ Collecting a lot ′ or ′ choosing many (types of costume) ′: Polylectic Wild bee species do not specialize in flowering plants from a single plant family or species; they collect a large number of, if not necessarily all, families of forage plants. Opposite: Oligolecty (O) or. Monolecty, also: Mesolecty.
 
polyphagous, Noun: Polyphagia
′ Eating a lot ′: living from many plant or animal species or genera. Opposite: oligiphag or. Oligophagy (O) and monophag or. Monophagy (M.).
 
population
'Population': reproductive community or individuals of a species that live in the same place at the same time and can reproduce with one another.
 
Population dynamics
Population evolution: the change in the size and spatial distribution of a population. The typical (possible, but not absolutely necessary) phases of population development are the Start-up phase, exponential growth, linear growth, retarded growth, one stationary phase and finally that Die.
 
Population ecology
(lat. populus = 'People' + gr. oikos = 'Household' + gr. logos = 'Teaching') The Population ecology deals with the interactions of a population with other populations of the same or a different species as well as with their environment.
 
postglacial
'after a glacial', i.e. after one or the last ice age
 
Predation · Predator
Capture (usually killing and consumption) by a predator. A predator is a Predator (H: lat.).
 
Embossing
In the youth in a for it sensitive phase Successful fast learning process with stable, sometimes irreversible learning result. Examples: 1. the well-known tracking of z. B. goslings, who can also mistake a human for a parent animal if they perceive it as the first living being. 2. The sexual fixation of young animals on conspecifics, which can also be misdirected to the animal owner, with the result that this animal is later no longer interested in conspecifics.
 
Praepupa, Prepupa
'Vorpuppe' or resting larva: stage of the Diapause (D.) or overwintering before the larva pupates in spring or early summer and finally into the Imago (I.) converts.
 
primitive-eusocial
at a simpler level eusocial (E.). Bumblebees and some furrow bees are considered to be primitive eusocial, Honeybees as highly eusocial Bees.
 
Probiosis
'For-life': relationship between organisms of two species from which only one partner can benefit without harming the other. Examples are the Commensalism (K) and the Phoresia (see above).
 
Prokaryotes
tiny cell organisms (bacteria) that are at the beginning of life and still make up the vast majority of living things today: of the estimated 400,000 to 4 million species, only 4,000 are known. (H: old gr.)
 
Protandry or. Proterandry
'Pre-masculinity': the phenomenon that male bees after the Diapause appear in front of the females and wait for them to mate. Adjective: proterandric; Opposite: Proterogyny.
    complement: Proterandry also denotes the occurrence of the male sex before the female sex within an individual; such hermaphrodites (Hermaphrodites, H) are among the land snails (Stylommatophora) the rule, but can also be found under fish and amphibian species.
Etymological Note: The name is made up of ancient Greek protos = 'first, earliest' and andros = 'Man'; the first word is off prototype ('first type, first role model') known and the second from Android ('human-like machine') or anthropology ('Human Studies').
 
Proterogyny or. Protogyny
'Pre-femininity': the rare phenomenon that the females of some species of bees at the end of the Diapause appear before the males. Only woolly bees are among the bees found in Europe (Anthidium) and shaggy bees (Panurgus) as proterogynous known. Opposite: Proterandry.
    complement: Proterogyny also denotes the occurrence of the female sex before the male within an individual.
 
Protists
most primitive group of Eukaryotes (Algae, flagellates, etc.) (H: old gr.)
 
psammophil
'sand-loving': adapted to sandy habitats - also in water.
 
Q
Quiescence
'Quiet': exogenous (from the outside) controlled Dormancy (D.), which is triggered immediately, for example, by unfavorable temperatures or excessively short day lengths and is immediately canceled when the unfavorable conditions cease to exist. The opposite, namely that too endogenous (from within, namely genetically and hormonally) controlled Dormancy is also known as Diapause (D.) designated.
 
R.
Reptiles
Reptiles, cold-blooded animals with horny (scaled or labeled) skin that emerged from the amphibians and are no longer dependent on water for reproduction. The dinosaurs and the first mammals developed from primeval reptiles. (From lat. reptilis = 'creeping')
 
District or. territory
Residential area that is defended (against the presence of) conspecifics, sometimes also against alien animals that compete for food and nesting places.
 
recent
still alive or recently extinct (from lat. recens = 'fresh, new young')
 
receptive
'ready to conceive', from fervent females (from lat. recipere = 'record')
 
Ruderalvegetation
Plants that grow on high-nitrogen debris.
 
S.
Saprobiont
'Digestive matter decomposer': Saprobionts Life saprophagus in decomposing organic matter.
 
sacrophagus, Noun: Sacrophagy
'Carnivorous': living only on meat. Opposite: hytophag or. Hypophagia ('Herbivorous').
 
saprophagus, Nouns: Saprophagus, Saprophagy
'Rotten matter-eating': saprophage Organisms live on dead, decomposing organic matter and are also called Saprophages or Saprobionts (see above).
 
saprophyte, Nouns: Saprophyte, Saprophyty
'Vegetable putrefaction': Saprophytes are plants that live on dead, decomposing organic material.
 
Seasonal dimorphism
'Different shape in a different season': the phenomenon that an organism deviates in shape and / or color from that of the first generation within a year in a second (or further) generation and consequently in a different season. An example for Seasonal dimorphism is the map (Araschnia levana), a noble bird whose different manifestations are controlled by the length of the day during the development of the caterpillars. Among the bees is the two-colored sand bee (Andrena bicolor) a little Seasonal dimorphism noticeable: The females of the second or summer generation show a somewhat lighter color Mesonotum-Hair and Scopa than the first or spring generation.
 
scramble competition
English 'scramble, crawl, scuffle' & 'competition'; in biology: 'jostling competition' of males willing to mate for a female.
 
selection
'Selection', 'Selection', 'Selection'. The selection leads in the evolution of the species to the fact that the genes that are best adapted to the respective environmental conditions multiply more than those that are less well adapted. (From lat. selectio = 'Selection')
 
semi-aquatic
living half in water, therefore also half on land; amphibious.
 
semi-social
'semi-sociable', living in groups at a lower level of organization. Semi-social Bees have given up their independence and practice division of labor, but the egg-laying queen and her working female assistants of the same generation do not reach the organizational level of bumblebees and honeybees.
 
Sensitive phase
A phase in the adolescent stage of an animal when it is sensitive to one Embossing z. B. on his parents or the appearance of a future sexual partner.
 
sessile
'stuck': Sessile are - with the exception of the tube eel - aquatic invertebrates that no longer have the ability to change their whereabouts. Examples: hard corals (Scleractinia), Sponges (Porifera), Walläuse (Cyamidae).
 
Sex parasitism
Benefit from characteristics or activities of other individuals of the same sex. Some male frogs, for example, intercept females who are attracted by the calls of other male conspecifics.
 
Solitaire...
'lonely', 'single', not social, i.e. not permanently living in pairs or groups. While z. B. the honey bee and the bumble bee are organized in "states", most bees live individually ('solo').
 
social
'sociable', regularly living in groups. This term is in the Ethology Neutral or neutral, not judgmental politically. Honey bees and bumblebees and most furrow bees are social Wild bees as they are organized into "states"; Due to their high level of organization, honey bees, bumblebees and some furrow bees are also called eusocial (E.) designated. The life of a bumblebee queen, for example, begins solitary, but reaches that social Phase when she has produced her first adult workers.
 
Social parasitism
Parasitismwhere a parasite (P.) the social system of a eusocial (E.) Host (W.) by letting this host raise his offspring.
 
specialist
(Plant or) animal species whose occurrence is restricted by a narrow diet and / or habitat pattern. Opposite: Generalist.
 
Speciation
Species emergence, emergence of a plant or animal species.
 
species
Plant or animal species, roughly defined: a reproductive community of identical individuals.
 
St.
stenök, Noun: Stenocy
'narrow, narrow' in relation to the 'environment': specialized in relation to one or more such factors, not very tolerant of environmental fluctuations, environmental specialist (for comparison: shorthand = 'Engschrift'). There are various restrictions or specializations with regard to the environment, each with its own technical term:
  • stenohalin (regarding the salt content)
  • stenohyd (regarding the water content)
  • stenohygr (regarding the soil moisture)
  • stenophag (with regard to food resources)
  • stenothermic (with respect to the ambient temperature)
  • stenoxygen (regarding the oxygen content)
  • stenotop (in relation to the habitat or Biotopes, see below)
Most bees are microclimatically stenoic. Opposite: euryök or. Euryokie (E.).
 
stenotop; Noun: Stenotopia
'narrow, narrow' in relation to the 'place' or bioTops: stenotopes Species are in terms of their Habitats (H) specialized, so "habitat specialists" (have a narrow "habitat scheme"). Opposite: eurytop or. Eurytopia (E.).
 
subsocial
′ Not yet social ′: In the sub-social During the development phase of a bee colony, a single female takes care of her brood (eggs, larvae). It only begins when the workers hatch social Phase.
 
Succession
'Succession' (also succession to the throne or legal succession); in botany the sequence of plant communities or vegetation phases that characterize a landscape: grass phase - shrub phase - shrub phase - tree phase. Such series of developments took place to a large extent after the glaciers retreated at the end of the Ice Ages. B. permanent beech, oak or mixed forests.
 
Symbiote
Living beings that benefit from a mutual community, such as flowering plants or the insect that pollinates them.Another example is a fly larva in a hymenoptera nest, which makes itself useful by eliminating possible foci of infection, on the other hand, itself benefits by extracting nutrients.
 
symbiosis, Adjective: symbiotic table
'Coexistence' of living beings of different species for mutual benefit, e.g. B. between flowering plants and the pollinating insects, birds or bats. A special case of the symbiosis is the Trophobiosis (T). (H: old gr.)
In US literature, the term is used symbiosis used neutrally in the literal sense, i.e. for all forms of co-evolutionary coexistence, which means the Mutualism (M.) and Commensalism (K) and even the Parasitism (P.) includes.
 
Symapomorphism
'common and derived (evolved) shape feature': If two or more (monophyletic, M.) Taxa the same derived features, so the same Apomorphism (A.), this is one Symapomorphism (from altgr. sym 'with together', apo 'off, away' and morph 'Form, shape'.
 
Symplesiomorphism
'Common and unchanged (original) form feature': If two or more Taxa the same original features, that is, the same Plesiomorphism (P.), this is one Symplesiomorphism (from altgr. sym 'with together', plesi 'near, neighboring' and morph 'Form, shape'). Opposite: Apomorphism (A.).
 
Sympathy, Adjective: sympathetic
'Common Fatherland': common occurrence of species or subspecies in the same geographical area so that crossbreeding is possible. Sympatric speciation is therefore unlikely and rare, but possible through sexual selection (the preference of partners with certain characteristics) or the occupation of different ones ecological niches in the same habitat. Opposites: Allopatry (A.) and Parapatry (P.).
 
synanthropic, Noun: Synanthropy
'together with humans': adapted to the human settlement area without having to rely on conspecifics from outside to maintain the population.
 
synchronization
(syn = 'together' + chronos = 'Time') in the actual, narrower sense, the simultaneous running of processes (such as the flowering of plants and the appearance of insects that are dependent on those flowering plants). In computer science, on the other hand, means synchronization mostly simply 'data synchronization' including replication or multiple storage of the compared data. Opposite: Desynchronization (D.).
 
Synecological optimum
the preferred area of ​​life of a species under the influence of a certain environmental factor (temperature, humidity, light intensity, etc.) and at the same time competition from other species (Interspecific competitionI.). Without interspecific competition speaks biology of auto-ecological optimum (A.).
 
T
Taxonomy
The biological system, i.e. the scientific and hierarchical classification of living beings according to their assumed history of origin (evolution) and relationship. The terms on this subject are on a own page explained.
 
thermophilic
'Warmth-loving': Thermophiles Living things are on warm Biotopes reliant.
 
Trinomials
'Three-part name': subspecies are named with one Trinomialsthat from a Binomials (B.) and a third word (subspecies epithet starting with a lowercase letter).
 
Trophy levels
Stages of the 'nutrient enrichment' of water bodies. There are four trophy levels:
  1. Oligotrophy: low nutrient enrichment, therefore low production of biomass
  2. Mesotrophy: Transitional stage between Oligotrophy and Eutrophy
  3. Eutrophy: high nutrient and phosphorus content, therefore high organic production
  4. hypertrophy or. Polytrophy: extreme nutrient content, the oxygen in the layers close to the ground is largely used up in summer.

Trophy
Alt GR. 'Nutrition', in biology also the food supply of a location. This is - primarily for waters - in the following Trophy-Steps expressed:
  • oligotrophic: 'nutrient poor'
  • mesotrophic: 'moderately nutritious'
  • eutrophic: 'nutrient rich'
  • polytrophic: 'very nutritious'
  • hypertrophic: 'extremely nutritious'
 
Trophic cascade
the influence of predators in the food chain (Predators) on the biomass, d. H. on herbivores and indirectly on plants. The trophic cascade is the counter model to Food pyramidin which plant production limits the mass of herbivores and this limits the amount of Predators.
 
Trophobiosis
A special form of symbiosis (S.), which focuses on the food relationship between two living beings: individuals of one species offer food to individuals of a second species who use the offer and provide something in return. A well-known example is the consumption of "honeydew" (= aphid excretions) by ants (Formicidae)who have favourited the aphids (Aphidoidea) Protection against predators (P.) grant.
 
tumulus
small mound of earth: ejecta that is created by bees when digging a nesting tunnel.
 
Turnover or. species turnover
Change in the composition of the Biocenosis (Cohabitation, B.) one Habitat (H): So far only sparse or migratory species can be in a Habitat enforce at the expense of other (previously dominant) species and even displace them. In business means turnover 'Revenue' or 'Sales of a company'.
 
U
Ubiquist
Ubiquitous Living being: adaptable living being that is not tied to a few biotopes.
 
ubiquitous
occurring everywhere (from lat. ubique = 'everywhere')
 
Resident
Insect (such as a type of bee) with a diapause (D.), which covers more than one winter, so that the development from egg to Imago (I.) lasts for two or more years. A biological benefit of a prolonged Diapause results about for oligolectic (O) Species of bees, namely when their (exclusive) pollen plants fail completely in one year or bloom less numerous and thus endanger the reproductive success. So far there are only a few bees optional or obligatory "Abandoned" known in the genus Osmia ('Mason bees') are these Osmia adunca, Osmia grandis, Osmia inermis, Osmia leaiana, Osmia niveata, Osmia parietina.
Other insects remain active during their long development period in the (often short) months of vegetation. Among the butterflies of the far north there are species that eat and hibernate in the caterpillar stage up to 14 tundra winters before they pupate and as Adults propagate.
    Note: In German hospital medicine, "overlieger" refer to patients who are inpatient or partial inpatient treatment at the turn of the year until the following year. In the sailor's language means Superior Depending on the emphasis, the leaning of a ship or lying long in the harbor.
 
wintering
surviving periodic cooling (the winter months) in cold and temperate zones through:
  1. Climatic migration of animals (e.g. insects, bats, birds);
  2. Winter rest, in which short periods of rest are repeatedly interrupted by activities (e.g. with bears, beavers, squirrels; the counterpart to winter rest is summer rest: some reptiles bury themselves in the ground in order to survive the summer heat wave with their lack of food and water);
  3. real hibernation with severe restrictions on warmth, metabolism and sensitivity to stimuli (e.g. in bats). The hibernation resembles the cold rigor cold blood animals (reptilies etc.).
 
univoltin
Univoltine bees have only one generation per year, i.e. That is, a female (queen) produces reproductive females only once a year, which overwinter in either the larval, pupa, or imaginal stage (i.e., as finished insects) and do not produce the next generation until the next year. Opposite: Bivoltine Species produce a second generation a year.
 
urban
'urban': Urban Living beings occur in the human settlement area.
 
V.
vestibule
'Entrance hall, forecourt, corridor': empty cell behind the nest lock z. B. a mason bee. Empty cells are suitable for distracting predators and parasites from occupied brood cells.
 
visual mimicry
'Visual similarity or imitation': Imitation of the visible anatomical structures, in particular the color patterns, of another animal species for the purpose of sharing a biological advantage offered by the anatomy of the animal species being imitated. A well-known example is the yellow-black drawing of some hover flies and bees, which imitate the warning look of defensive wasps Predators (P.) protect. Another, less well-known form of the mimicry (M.) is the olfactory mimicry (O).
 
viviparous
'viviparous'. Opposite: oviparous = 'giving birth through eggs'. (H: French, Italian, lat.)
 
Voltinism
Frequency of the annually produced successor generations of a species. This is:
  • univoltin (alternatively: monovoltine) when one generation is brought up per year;
  • bivoltin with two generations per year (the first producing the second);
  • trivoltin with three generations per year (the 1st produces the 2nd, this then the 3rd);
  • multivoltin with two or more generations per year (not for all authors);
  • polyvoltine or. plurivoltin with uninterrupted successive generations, as is common in areas with no seasons;
  • semivoltin with a generation over two (or more) years (depending on the author);
  • merovoltin with a generation over three (or more) years (depending on the author).

B.
host
Living being, that of another - namely one Parasites (P.) (about Breeding parasites, B.) - serves as a food dispenser.
 
X
xerophilic
'Drought-loving': Xerophiles Living things are on dry land Biotopes reliant.
 
Y
Z
pointerorganisms
Plants and animals, which by their presence point to certain environmental factors on which they depend for their survival. Certain lichens e.g. B. indicate clean or polluted air, certain aquatic organisms indicate a low level of pollution. The multiplication of nettles leaves on overfertilization (Eutrophication) shut down. Further examples:
Creeping buttercupRanunculus repensclayey soil
Common PechnelkeLynchis viscariaSandy soil
BlueberryVaccinium myrtillusacidic soil
Coltsfoot tableTussilago farfaraalkaline soil
French herbGalinsoga spec.humic soil

Coenosis
'Community, society': in biology a community of organisms. In relation to a living space (Biotope) one usually speaks of Biocenosis (B.).
 
Zoochory
'Animal spread': spread of seeds by animals. The subforms are:
  • Chiropterochory: Spread by bats;
  • Dysochory: Spread by chance;
  • Endochory (E.): Spread through digestion;
  • Epichory: Spread through adhesion (sticky, Velcro);
  • Myrmecochory: Spread by ants;
  • Ornithochory: Propagation by birds.