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Malwa

Malwa
Biggest citiesIndore
languagesMalwi, Hindi
surface81.767 km²
population (2001) 18,889,000
Population density231 single rooms / km²
Birth rate (2001) 31.6
Death rate (2001) 10.3
Child Mortality (2001) 93.8

Malwa (Malwi: माळवा, Māḷavā) is a region in western central northern India and occupies a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. This region was an independent political entity from the time of the Indian Malawa tribe to the merger of the British Malwa Agency in Madhya Bharat (1947). Despite shifting borders in the course of history, it has developed its own specific culture and language.

The plateau, which occupies a large part of the region, is named after the region of the Malwa plateau . Its mean height is 500 meters and the landscape generally slopes towards the north. Most of the region is drained by the Chambal and its tributaries, the western part by the upper reaches of the Mahi. At the time of Malwa's independence, Ujjain was the political, economic and cultural capital of the region; today, Indore, the largest city, is the economic center. Overall, most of the people of Malwas work in agriculture. The region is one of the most important opium producers in the world. But cash crops such as cotton and soybeans are also grown. Another important branch of the economy is textile production.

Malwa includes the districts of Dewas, Dhar, Indore, Jhabua, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Shajapur, Ujjain and parts of Guna and Sehore as well as the Jhalawar district of the state of Rajasthan and parts of Bansware and Chittorgarh. In the north, Malwa is bounded by the Hadoti region, in the north-west by Mewar and by Vagad and Gujarat in the west. Sometimes Nimar in the south of the Vindhyas is still politically and administratively attributed to Malwa. Geologically, however, the name Malwa Plateau refers to the volcanic highlands south of the Vindhyas, which comprise Malwa, and extends eastward to the upper Betwa Basin and the upper reaches of the Dhasan and Ken rivers. The region has a tropical climate with dry deciduous forests that are home to several tribes, including the Bhil. Culturally, the region was influenced by the cultures of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Maratha. The most commonly used language, especially in rural areas, is Malwi, while Hindi is mostly used in cities. Ujjain, Mandu, Maheshwar, Omkareshwar and Indore serve as tourist attractions.

The first significant kingdom in the region was Avanti, a major power in West India at the transition from the 6th to the 5th century BC. In the 4th century BC The region was annexed by the Maurya Empire. The late Gupta Empire in the 5th century AD was a golden time in Malwa's history. The dynasties of the Parmaras (sultans of Malwa) and the Marathas ruled Malwa again and again. Leading artists and scientists were born in this region, including the poet and writer Kalidasa, the author Bhartrihari, the mathematicians and astronomers Varahamihira and Brahmagupta, and the polymath King Bhoja.

History

Ceramic mug from Navdatoli, Malwa, around 1300 BC. Chr.
Depiction of the Kartikeya and the Lakshmi on one coin; Ujjain; approx. 150-75 BC Chr.
Situation of Malwas in comparison to other states around 1200 AD before the conquest by the Sultanate of Delhi
Sculpture of a court servant of the Holkar from Fort Ahilya

Several early Stone Age and Early Paleolithic dwellings have been excavated in eastern Malwa. The name "Malwa" itself is derived from the name of the ancient Aryan tribe of the Malava, about whom little is known, other than the fact that the Bikram Sambat goes back to them. This is a calendar from the year 57 BC. BC, which is used in much of India and is commonly associated with King Chandragupta Vikramaditya. The name of the Malava comes from the Sanskrit term “Malav” and means “part of the Lakshmi dwelling”. The settlement area of ​​the Malwa or Moholo is identified with today's Gujarat, according to the mention of the Chinese traveler Xuanzang from the 7th century. The region is mentioned as Malibah in Arabic records such as the Kamilu-t Tawarikh Ibn Asirs.

Ujjain, historically known as Ujjaiyini or Avanti , emerged as the first major center of the malware region during the second wave of urbanization in India in the 7th century BC (the first wave of urbanization is primarily known as the Indus culture). Around 600 BC Ujjain, which at that time had a considerable size, was surrounded by an earth wall. Avanti was one of the well-known Mahajadpadas (kingdoms) of the Indo-Aryans. In the post-Mahabharata period, around 500 BC. BC, Avanti was still one of the important kingdoms of West India; it was ruled by the Haihayas, a people believed to have emerged from a mixture of the Indo-Aryans and descendants of the indigenous peoples and who were responsible for the decline of Naga power in the West Indies.

The region was conquered by the Maurya Empire in the middle of the 4th century BC. After the death of Ashoka, an emperor of the Maurya who was governor of Ujjain in his youth, 232 BC. The Maurya empire began to collapse. While there is little evidence, it is believed that Malwa was likely ruled by the Cushans and Sakas in the second and first centuries BC. Dominance over this region was the subject of a conflict between the western Kshatrapas and the Satavahanas in the first three centuries of our Common Era. As early as the first century, Ujjain developed into a large trading center.

During the reign of Chandragupta II (375-413 AD), also known as Vikramaditya , who conquered the region and drove out the secular Kshatrapas, Malwa became part of the Gupta Empire. This Gupta period is widely considered to be the golden period in Malwa's history when Ujjain served as the empire's western capital. Kalidasa, Aryabhata and Varahamihira came from Ujjain, which developed into a great center of science, especially astronomy and mathematics. Around 500 Malwa rose from the crumbling Gupta empire as a separate kingdom; In 528 Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Alchon, who invaded India from the northwest. In the seventh century the region became part of Harsa's empire, who fought over the region with King Pulakesin II of the Chalukya dynasty of Badami in the Deccan.

The region was conquered in 786 by the kings of the Rashtrakuta dynasty from the Deccan, who fought over it with the kings of the Pratihara dynasty from Kannauj until the beginning of the tenth century. From the middle of the tenth century, Malwa came under the rule of the Paramara dynasty of the Rajputs, who made Dhara their capital. King Bhoja (circa 1010-1060) is considered to be the great universal gifted philosopher-king of the Indian Middle Ages; his extensive writings cover philosophy, poetry, medicine, veterinary medicine, phonetics, yoga and archery. Under his rule, Malwa became the intellectual center of India. Bhoja also founded the city of Bhopal, which was supposed to secure the eastern part of his kingdom. His successors ruled until around 1200, when Malwa was conquered by the Sultanate of Delhi.

Dilawar Khan Gori, former governor of Malwa under the rule of the Sultanate of Delhi, declared himself Sultan of Malwa in 1401 after the Mongol conqueror Timur attacked Delhi and thus caused the sultanate to break up into smaller states. Khan then founded the Sultanate of Malwa, his son Hoshang Shah built Mandu, located high in the Vindhya Range, overlooking the valley of the Narmada, the residence and capital of. Hoshang's son, Ghazni Khan, could only hold power for a year. He was succeeded by Sultan Mahmud Khalji (1436–1469), the first of the Khalji sultans Malwas, who expanded the state to include parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan and the Deccan. The Muslim sultans invited the Rajputs to settle in the country. In the 16th century, however, the sultan asked the sultans of Gujarat for help in curbing the increasing power of the Rajputs, while they in turn sought assistance from the kings of the Sisodhya clan of the Rajputs who ruled Mewar. Gujarat stormed Mandu in 1518 and 1531, after which the Malwa Sultanate collapsed a short time later. Akbar I, Emperor of the Mughal Empire, conquered Malwa in 1563 and transformed it into a province of his empire. Mandu was finally abandoned in the 17th century.

When the Mughal Empire lost its power after 1700, the Marathas took control of Malwa. Nemaji Shinde and Chimnaji Damodar were the first Marathan generals to cross the border of Maharashtra to invade Malwa in 1698. In 1724 Malharrao Holkar (1694–1766) became commander in chief of the Marathic troops in Malwa and in 1733 he was given control of most of the region after the Mughals officially resigned in 1738. Ranoji Scindia stated that the commandant of the Marathas established his headquarters in Ujjain in 1731. This seat of government was later moved from Daulatrao Scindia to Gwalior. Another Marathic general, Anand Rao Pawar, established himself as the Raja of Dhar in 1742, and the two Pawar brothers became Rajas of Dewas. At the end of the 18th century, Malwa became the scene of the fighting between the rival powers of the Marathas and the headquarters of the Pindari, extra-regular looters. The Pindari were exterminated by a campaign by British General Baron Hastings, and further regulations were introduced under John Malcolm. The Holkar dynasty ruled Malwa from Indore and Maheshwar on the Narmada until 1818, when the Marathas were defeated by the British in the Third Marath War and Indore, ruled by the Holkars, became a princely state of British India. After 1818 the British incorporated the numerous princely states of Central India into the Central India Agency; the Malwa Agency was a division of it, which had an area of ​​23,100 km² and a population of 1,054,753 (as of 1901). It consisted of the states of the Dewas (senior and junior branch), Jaora, Ratlam, Sitamau and Sailana, together with a large part of Gwaliors, parts of Indore and Tonk and around 35 small estates and holdings. Political power was exercised from Neemuch. With the independence of India (1947), the Holkars and other princes joined India, and most of Malwas became part of the new Madhya Bharat state, which was incorporated into Madhya Pradesh in 1956.

geography

Malwa extends on a plateau in western Madhya Pradesh and southeastern Rajasthan (between 21 ° 11 'north, 73 ° 45' east and 25 ° 10 'north and 79 ° 14' east) with Gujarat to the west. In the south and east are the Vindhya Mountains, in the north the Bundelkhand Highlands. The plateau is an extension of the Dekkan-Trapp, which was formed around 68 to 68 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous Period. The soils of this region belong mainly to the black, brown and stony soils. The volcanic, clay-like earth in this region owes its black color mainly to the high iron content of the basalt from which it was formed. These soils require less irrigation due to their high storage capacities for moisture. The other two soil types are lighter and have a higher proportion of sand.

The Vindhya Mountains limit the plateau to the south and are the source of many rivers in the region
The sambar is one of the most widespread wildlife in the region.

The average height of the plateau is 500 meters, but there are some peaks over 800 meters high on Sigar (881 meters), Japanav (854 meters) and Ghajari (810 meters). The plateau is generally inclined to the north. The western part of the Regin is drained by the Mahi, while the Chambal drains the central part and the Betwa and the upper reaches of the Dhasan and Ken the eastern part of the region. The Shipra is of historical importance because of the Simhasth mela, which takes place every 12 years. Other rivers worth mentioning are the Parbati, Gambhir and the Choti Kali Sindh. Its altitude gives Malwa a mild, pleasant climate; a cool morning breeze, the Karaman and an evening breeze, the Shab-e-Malwa, also make the summers less hot.

The year is usually divided into three seasons: summer, rainy season and winter. Summer extends from the months of Chaitra to Jyestha (mid-March to mid-May). During these months, the average daily temperature is 35 ° C and increases to around 40 ° C on some days. The rainy season begins with the first showers of Aashaada (mid-June) and lasts until mid-Ashvin (September). The greatest amounts of precipitation fall under the influence of the southwest monsoon and range from 1000 mm in the west to 1650 mm in the east. Indore and the immediately surrounding areas receive an average of 1400 mm of precipitation annually. The growing season, in which the average daily temperatures are mostly between 20 and 30 ° C, lasts between 90 and 150 days. Winter is the longest of the three seasons and lasts around five months (mid-Ashvin to Phalgun, that is, from October to mid-March). The average daytime temperatures are mostly between 15 and 20 ° C; they can drop to around 7 ° C during a few nights. Some farmers claim that an occasional winter shower during the months of Pausha and Maagha has a positive effect on the early summer wheat crops.

The region is part of the Kathiarbar-Gir dry-leaf forest ecoregion. Their natural vegetation are tropical dry forests and isolated teak forests. The most common tree species are Butea, Bombax, Anogeissus, Acacia, Buchanania and Boswellia. The most common smaller tree species and shrubs include Grewia, Indian Jujube, Casearia, Prosopis, Capparis, Woodfordia, Phyllanthus, and Carissa. The fauna mainly includes artifacts such as sambar, deer goat antelopes and Indian gazelles. Deforestation has progressed rapidly over the past century, leading to environmental problems such as acute water scarcity and the risk of desertification.

population

A girl from the Gadia Lohar nomadic tribe from Marwar cooks on the outskirts of a village in Ratlam district

Malwa has around 18.9 million inhabitants ( as of 2001 ), with an average population density of 231 / km². The annual birth rate is 31.6 ‰ and the death rate 10.3 ‰. Child mortality at 93.8 ‰ is slightly higher than in all of Madhya Pradesh.

Numerous tribes live in the region, such as the Bhil, their related groups, the Bhilala, Barela and Patelia as well as the Meena, all of whom differ in their dialect and community life to a marked degree from the regional population. They span a variety of languages ​​and cultures. Some tribes in the region, particularly the Kanjar, were listed in the Criminal Tribes Act in the 19th century for criminal activities; However, they have since been played there again. The Gadia Lohar, a nomadic tribe from the Marwar region in Rajasthan who work as "Lohar" (blacksmiths), visit the region at the beginning of the agricultural period to repair or sell agricultural implements and tools and settle temporarily on the outskirts of the village and town to live there in their ornate metal wagons. Another nomadic tribe from Rajastan who regularly visit the region are the Albelia.

Malwa is home to a significant number of Dawoodi Bohra, a subgroup of the Shiites from Gujarat who mainly work as business people. In addition to the local language, they have their own language with Lisan al-Dawat. The Patidar, who presumably descended from the Kurmi in Punjab, are predominantly arable farmers who settled in Gujarat around 1,400. The times of the Sultanate and Maratha rule led to a growth in the Muslim and Marathi communities. A significant number of Jats and Rajputs also live in the region. The Sindhi, who settled here after the partition of India, are an important group for the economy. As in neighboring Gujarat and southern Rajasthan, many residents of the region belong to Jainism, and most of them are traders and business people. Malwa is also home to a smaller number of Goa Catholics, Anglo-Indians, Punjabi, and Zoroastrians. The latter, also called Parsi, is closely linked to the spread and development of Mhow, where a fire temple and a tower of silence are located.

economy

Malwa is one of the world's largest opium producers. This branch of industry is the result of the close links between Malwa's economy and the western Indian port cities and China, which brought international capital to the region in the 18th and 19th centuries. Malwa opium competed with the monopoly of the British East India Company, which supplied Bengali opium to China. This resulted in the British company imposing many restrictions on the production and trade of this drug, eventually moving the opium trade underground. As smuggling became widespread, the British eased restrictions again. Today the region is one of the largest producers of legal opium in the world. A central, state-owned opium and alkaloid factory is located in Neemuch. However, there is still a significant amount of illegal opium production taking place which serves the black market. The administration of the Central Authority for Narcotics of India is located in Gwalior. The Rajputana-Malwa Railway opened in 1876.

Malwa is mainly agricultural. The brown soil in parts of the region is particularly suitable for growing early summer fruits such as wheat, chickpeas and sesame. Poorer soils for the cultivation of early winter crops such as sorghum, corn, mung and black grams, peas and peanuts used. The overall main products are millet, legumes, peanuts, cotton, flaxseed, sesame and sugar cane. There are sugar factories in numerous smaller towns. The black soils are ideal for growing cotton; Textile production is an important industry today. The major centers of textile production include Indore, Ujjain and Nagda. Maheshwar is known for its fine saris and Mandsour for its coarse woolen blankets.

For the people living in tribes, handicrafts are an important source of income. Also known are colored lacquer work from Ratlam, rag dolls from Indore and papier-mâché items from Indore, Ujjain and various other centers.

Mandsaur is the only district in India to produce white and red slate, which is processed in the district's 110 pen factories, and cement is also produced there; otherwise the region has no natural resources. The Malwas industry mainly produces consumer goods, but there are now many centers of medium-sized and large-scale industry. These include Indore, Nagda and Ujjain. Diesel engines are manufactured in Indore.Pithampur, about 25 km from Indore, is known as "Detroit of India" for its high concentration of the automotive industry. Indore is known as the financial capital Madhya Pradesh, at the same time it is an important center for the trade in textiles and agricultural products. One of the six Indian management institutes is located there.

Culture

Maratha style sculpture from Mheshwar

Due to its geographical proximity, the culture of Malwas was significantly influenced by the cultures of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Under the predominance of the Maratha in the recent past, it was noticeably influenced by their own culture.

The main language of Malwas is Malwi, although Hindi is widely spoken in the cities. This Indo-European language is assigned to the branch of the Indo-Aryan languages. Occasionally used alternative names for Malwi are Malavi or Ujjaini. Malwi is part of the Rajasthani language branch; Nimadi is spoken in Nimar and Rajasthan. The dialects of Malwi are in alphabetical order: Bachadi, Bhoyari, Dholewari, Hoshangabadi, Jamral, Katiyai, Malvi Proper, Patvi, Rangari, Rangri and Sondwari. However, an investigation in 2001 could only identify four dialects: Ujjaini (in the districts of Ujjain, Indore, Dewas and Sehore), Rajawari (in Ratlam, Mandsaur and Neemuch), Umadwari (in Rajgarh) and Sondhwari (in Jhalawar, Rajasthan) . About 55% of the population of Malwas speak Hindi, the official language in Madhya Pradesh, as a colloquial language and about 40% can read and write Hindi.

The traditional dishes of Malva have elements of Grujarat and Rajasthan cuisine. A large part of Malwa's population is vegetarian. Millet has traditionally been the staple food, but wheat was substituted for it after the green revolution in India. Since the climate is mostly dry all year round, most people get their supplies from storable foods such as legumes; green vegetables, on the other hand, are rarely used. A typical dish is "bhutta ri kees" (grated, roasted corn, roasted in clarified butter and later boiled in milk with spices). “Chakki ri shaak” is made from wheat dough that has been washed under running water, steamed and then consumed with a quark sauce. The traditional bread in Malwa is called Baati / Bafla and consists essentially of a small ball of wheat flour that is toasted over dried dung. Baati is typically served with dal, while baflas of clarified butter is dripping with dal. The "Amli ri Kadhi" is Kadhi, which is made with tamarind instead of yogurt. "Tapu", sweet cakes made from variations of wheat, are made for religious celebrations. Sweet cereals are eaten as "thulli" with milk or yogurt. Traditional desserts include “Mawa-Bati” (milk-based sweet, similar to Gulab Jamun), “Khoprapak” (coconut-based), “Shreekhand” (yoghurt-based) and “Malpua”.

Lavani is a widespread style of singing in southern Malwa that was brought to the region by the Marathas and is part of the Tamasha folk dance theatre . The two main directions are "Nirguni Lavani" (philosophical) and "Shringari Lavani" (erotic). The Bhil have their own folk songs, which are always accompanied by a dance. The folk music of Malwas is based on a four- or five-, in rare cases also six-tone system. The religious music of the Nirguni cult is very popular throughout Malwa. Classic themes of the folk songs are the legends of Raja, Bhoj and Bijori and the Kanjar girl, as well as the fairy tale of Balabau. Often deposits, known as "Stobha", are used in the music of Malwas, which can be done in four ways: "Varna Stobha" (letter insert), "Matra Stobha" (syllable insert), "Shabda Stobha" (word insert ) and "Vakya Stobha" (Sentence insert).

Typical landscape at Mhow during the monsoon rain

Malwa was the center of Sanskrit poetry during and after the Gupta period. The most famous playwright in the region, Kalidasa, is considered to be the greatest writer in all of India. His oldest surviving drama is called "Malavikagnimitra" (Malavika and Agnimitra); his second work, "Abhijñānaśākuntalam", is considered his masterpiece and tells the story of King Dushyanta, who falls in love with a girl of middle-class origin, the lovely Shakuntala. The third and last surviving drama of Kalidasa is Vikramuurvashiiya (Uvarishi Conquered by Valor). Kalidasa also wrote the epic poems "aghuvamsha" (dynasty of Raghu), "Ritusamhāra" and "Kumarasambhava" (birth of the god of war) as well as the lyrical "Meghaduuta" (the messenger of clouds).

Swang is a popular dance in Malwa; its roots go back to the beginnings of the Indian theater tradition in the first millennium BC. Since women did not participate in the dramatic dance form, men took on their roles. Swang contains theatrics and facial expressions and is accompanied alternately by singing and dialogue. The genre is generally more dialogue-oriented than movement-oriented.

“Mandana” (literary paintings), paintings on walls and floors, are the best known tradition of painting Malwas. White drawings contrast with the primer, which is mixed with red clay and cow dung. Peacocks, cats, lions, goojari, bawari, swastikas and chowk are typical motifs of this style. “Sanjhya” is a ritual wall painting made by young girls during the annual time when the Hinu remember their ancestors and make ritual sacrifices to them. Miniature drawings from Malwa are known for their intricate brushwork. In the 17th century, an offshoot of the Rajasthan school of miniature painting, known as "Malwa Painting", which was concentrated in Malwa and Bundelkhand. This school received the style of the oldest examples, such as the "Rasikapriya" series from 1636 (based on a poem it examines the feeling of love) and the "Amaru Sataka" (a Sanskrit poem of the 17th century). The paintings of this school are two-dimensional compositions on a black or chocolate brown background, with depictions that contrast against a plain background and architecture painted in vivid colors.

The largest festival in Malwas is the "Simhastha mela", which takes place every 12 years and for which more than 40 million pilgrims take a holy bath in Shipra. The festival of "Gana-Gour" is celebrated in honor of Shiva and Parvati. This festival goes back to Rano Bai, who came from Malwa, but married in to Rajasthan. She was closely connected to Malwa and therefore did not want to stay in Rajastan; however, after her marriage, she was only allowed to visit Malwa once a year. Gana-Gour symbolizes these annual visits. This festival is celebrated by women of the region once in the months of Chaitra (mid-March) and Bhadra (mid-August). The "Ghadlya" festival (earthen pot) is celebrated by girls from the region who gather to visit every house in their village in the evening, carrying earthen pot, in which oil lamps are placed and which are perforated, like that that the light from the lamps can reach the outside. In front of every house the girls sing songs related to the Ghadlya and receive food or money in return. The "Gordhan" festival is celebrated on the 16th of Kartika. The Bhil in Malwa sing "Heeda", anecdotal songs about raising livestock, while the women sing "Chandrawali", which is related to Krishna's romance.

The most popular masses are held in the months of Phalguna, Chaitra, Bhadra, Ashvin and Kartik. The Chaitra Fair in Biaora and the “Gal Yatras” held in more than two dozen villages in Malwa are worth seeing. Many masses are held on the 10th Bhadra to commemorate the birth of Tejaji. The "Triveni Mela" is held in Ratlam, other masses are held in Kartika in Ujjain, Mandhata (Nimad), Nayagon and others.

In the Belisarius tale by David Drake and Eric Flint, the people of Malwa were chosen by evil beings from the future to change the course of history. The Byzantine general Belisarius is opposed to them by a creature cleverly made by good beings from the future.

tourism

The main tourist destinations in Malwa are places of historical or religious importance. For example, the Shipra River and downtown Ujjain have been considered sacred for millennia. The Mahakal Temple of Ujjain is one of the twelve Jyotirlingas. In addition, however, Ujjain has over 100 other ancient temples, including Hasidhhi, Chintaman Ganesh, Gadh Kalika, Kaal Bhairava and Mangalnath. The Kalideh Palace on the outskirts of the city is a fine example of ancient Indian architecture. There are interesting legends about the Bhartrihari caves. Since the 4th century, Ujjain has served as the first degree of longitude for Hindu geographers. The observatory built by Jai Singh II is one of four of its kind and contains ancient astronomical devices. The "Simhastha mela", which is celebrated every 12 years, begins with the full moon in Chaitra (April) and lasts until Vaishakha (May), until the next full moon.

Mandu was originally the fortified capital of the Parmer rulers. Towards the end of the 13th century it came under the rule of the Sultans of Malwa, the first of whom renamed it Shadiabad (City of Joy). It remained the capital and the sultans built exquisite palaces such as the Jahaz Mahal and the Hindola Mahal, but also destination canals, baths and pavilions on its grounds. The mighty tombs of Jami Masjid and Hoshang Shah inspired the designers of the Taj Mahal centuries later. In the 16th century, Baz Bahadur built a huge palace in Mandu. Other notable historical monuments include RewaKund, Rupmati Pavilion, Nilkanth Mahal, Hathi Mahal, Darya Khan's Tomb, Dai ka Mahal, Malik Mughit Mosque, and Jali Mahal.

Near Mandu is Maheshwar, a city on the northern bank of the Narmada, which was the capital of the state of Indore under Ahilyabai Holkar. The Marathas Fortress is the main attraction. Inside the complex is a life-size statue of Rani Ahilya on a throne. Before Mandu became the capital of Malwas in 1405, Dhar held this position. Only ruins remain of the fortress there, but they offer a good view. The Bhojashala Mosque (built around 1400) is still used today for Friday services. The abandoned Lat Masjid (1405) and the tomb of the Muslim saint Kamal Maula (early 15th century) are other attractions.

The modern Indore was planned and built under Ahilyabai Holkar. Among its greatest monuments is the great Lal Baag Palace. The Bada Ganpati Temple houses possibly the largest Ganesh icon in the world, with a total height of over 7.60 m. The Kanch Mandir is a Jain temple that is fully equipped with glass. The town hall was built in 1904 in the Indo-Gothic style; it was renamed Mahatma Gandhi Hall from King Edward Hall in 1948. "Chhatris" are the tombs and memorials that were erected in memory of deceased Holkar rulers and their family members.

The shrine Hussain Tekris, built in the 19th century by Nawab of Jaora, Mohammad Iftikhar Ali Khan Bahadur, is on the edge Jaoras in the district of Ratlam. Bahadur was buried in the same cemetery. During the month of Muharram, thousands of people from all over the world visit the shrine of Husain ibn ʿAlī, a replica of the Iraqi original. The place is best known for the rituals called "Hajri" which are supposed to heal mental illnesses.

So see

literature

  • John Malcolm: A Memoir of Central India. Including Malwa and Adjoining Provinces, with the history and copious illustrations of the past and present conditions of that country. 2 volumes. 3rd edition. Parbury & Allen, London, 1832 (1. Indian reprint. Thacker, Spink and Co. et al. Calcutta, 1880. Photolithographic Facsimile. Aryan Books International, New Delhi 2001, ISBN 81-7305-199-2).
  • Kripa Shanker Mathur: Caste and ritual in a Malwa village. Asia Publishing House, Bombay et al. 1964.
  • Upendra Nath Day: Medieval Malwa. A political and cultural history. 1401-1562. Munshi Ram Manohar Lal, Delhi 1965.
  • Khushhalilal Srivastava: The revolt of 1857 in Central India-Malwa. Allied Publishers, Bombay, et al. a. 1966.
  • DC Sircar: Ancient Malwa and the Vikramāditya tradition. Munshiram Manoharlal, Delhi 1969.
  • Kailash Chand Jain: Malwa through the ages. From the earliest times to 1305 AD Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi et al. 1972.
  • Ramchandra Vinayak Joshi: Stone age cultures of Central India (Report on the excavations of rock-shelters at Adamgarh, Madhya Pradesh) (= Deccan College, Postgraduate and Research Institute. Publication 181). Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute, Poona 1978.
  • KN Seth: The growth of the Paramara power in Malwa. Progress Publishers, Bhopal 1978.
  • RK Sharma (Ed.): Art of the Paramāras of Mālwā. Proceedings of the UGC sponsored All-India Seminar held at Prachya Niketan, Center of Advanced Studies in Indology & Museology, Bhopal, Jan. 21-23, 1978. Agam Kala Prakashan, Delhi 1979.
  • Manika Chakrabarti: Mālwa in Post-Maurya period. a critical study with special emphasis on numismatic evidences. Punthi Pustak, Calcutta 1981.
  • SH Ahmad, F. Huq: Anthropometric measurements and ethnic affinities of the Bhil and their allied groups of Malwa area (= Anthropological Survey of India. Memoir 84 = Malwa Series 1). Anthropological Survey of India, Calcutta 1991, ISBN 81-85579-07-5.
  • MD Khare, D. Khare: Splendor of Malwa paintings. Cosmo Publications, New Delhi 1983.
  • Raghubir Singh: Malwa in transition, or, A century of anarchy. The first phase, 1698-1765. Asian Educational Services, New Delhi 1993, ISBN 81-206-0750-3.
  • Amar Farooqui: Smuggling as subversion. Colonialism, Indian merchants, and the politics of opium, 1790-1843. Lexington Books, Lanham MD, et al. a. 2005, ISBN 0-7391-0886-7.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ J. Jacobson: Early Stone Age Habitation Sites in Eastern Malwa . In: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society , Vol. 119, No. August 4, 1975 ( page no longer available , search in web archives) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@ 1 @ 2Template: Dead Link / www.jstor.org 
  2. ^ Malwa plateau on Britannica
  3. a b c Malwa . In: Encyclopædia Britannica . 11th edition. tape 17: Lord Chamberlain - Mecklenburg. London 1911, p. 518 (English, full text [Wikisource]).
  4. ↑ MH Panhwar: Sindh: The Archaeological Museum of the world. (PDF; 66 kB)
  5. a b c Ahmad: Anthropometric measurements and ethnic affinities of the Bhil and their allied groups of Malwa area. 1991.
  6. Geochronological Study of the Deccan Volcanism by the 40Ar-39Ar Method . Abstract of doctor's thesis Geochronological Study of the Deccan Volcanism by the 40Ar-39Ar Method . (Memento from February 25, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) quoted according to: Abstract of doctor's thesis Geochronological Study of the Deccan Volcanism by the 40Ar-39Ar Method . (Memento from February 25, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
  7. ^ The Deccan beyond the plume hypothesis .
  8. ^ Dewas district (Memento of the original from January 9, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @ 1 @ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / dewas.nic.in
  9. ↑ Kalbeliya nomads
  10. ↑ Ethnologue
  11. ↑ 'Swang' - The Folk Dance of Malwa (Memento of the original from January 6, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @ 1 @ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.boloji.com
  12. ↑ Paintings of Mewar and Malwa (Memento of the original dated August 30, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @ 1 @ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / ignca.nic.in
  13. ↑ Malwa painting on Encyclopedia Britannica (Memento of the original from October 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @ 1 @ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / library.uor.edu
  14. ↑ Ujjain district official portal (Memento of the original from December 17, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @ 1 @ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.ujjain.nic.in