What is a comprehensive medical examination

Health check-up

These include diabetes, high blood pressure or kidney problems, among others. In this way diseases can be avoided or identified and treated as early as possible. Read here which examinations you can expect at the health check, when the examination is due and who will carry it out.

What is a health check-up?

The health check-up is an important preventive medical check-up for men and women. It is used to detect diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus or heart problems at an early stage. The health check also offers space for medical advice on topics such as family history and other health risks. The general practitioner or an internist will carry out the health check-up.

How to prevent diabetes

  • No chance for diabetes!

    More and more people are developing diabetes. This would prevent diabetes in many cases. We will show you which - sometimes surprising - means you can use to prevent type 2 diabetes.
  • Healthy body weight

    Type 2 diabetes is also known as the "disease of affluence". Reducing your body weight is therefore perhaps a hardly surprising, but all the more effective method of reducing the risk of diabetes. So try to reduce love handles if you are overweight.
  • Better not to drink a binge

    Those who frequently get drunk to the point of unconsciousness increase their chances of developing diabetes. Because alcohol makes the body cells less sensitive to insulin - at least that was shown by an animal experiment: people who look too deep into the glass once a week for years would increase their risk of diabetes, the American researchers concluded.
  • Cocoa for diabetes

    Prevention can be so tasty: Researchers from the USA have shown that high-percentage cocoa powder has an anti-inflammatory effect and can therefore probably also prevent diabetes. So far, this therapy has only been tested on mice, but the option would also be promising for humans.
  • Fruity protection

    Stone fruits such as nectarines or plums contain bioactive components that counteract obesity and reduced insulin effects. Consumption of the sweet fruit therefore lowers the risk of developing diabetes - a study by Texas A&M University suggests.
  • Move forward

    In type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become less sensitive to insulin. The result: the sugar in the blood is no longer channeled into the body cells, but remains in the bloodstream. Physical activity can increase the body's cells' sensitivity to insulin again - so plan for exercise regularly.
  • A little helps a lot

    Recent studies have shown that even a short walk (around 15 minutes) after eating has a positive effect on blood sugar levels. The preventive effect was greatest after dinner.
  • With strength training against diabetes

    Strength training also increases the effect of insulin in the body's cells. An international study on men showed that around two and a half hours of exercise per week reduced the risk of developing diabetes by 34 percent. Other studies showed that jogging with the same amount of effort can reduce the likelihood of diabetes by as much as 50 percent.
  • Stress relieve

    Research on Swedish men found that their risk of developing diabetes increased dramatically when they were under constant stress. Therefore, always pay attention to a healthy balance, even in stressful times. Good stress management is important to reduce your risk of diabetes.
  • Well rested against diabetes

    The next prevention tip goes in the same direction: Make sure you get enough restful sleep. Because lack of sleep is also a risk factor for diabetes because it affects the sugar metabolism.
  • Test regularly

    The earlier diabetes is discovered, the easier it is to counteract it. Often, however, the symptoms are so diffuse that the diabetes is diagnosed late - when the consequential damage has already occurred. You should therefore also use health checks to be tested for diabetes by your doctor.
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    Medical editor and biologist

When can I have a health check-up?

Between the ages of 18 and 34, the health insurance company pays for a one-off health check. Everyone over 35 is entitled to a check-up every three years. All examinations are free of charge for the patient.

Which examinations take place during the check-up?

At the beginning of the health check-up, the doctor asks the patient about their previous illnesses and illnesses that occur in their family. The main focus is on common diseases such as

  • high blood pressure
  • increased fat levels in the blood
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Arterial Disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Lung disease
  • cancer

In this way, the doctor determines the patient's individual disease risk profile and assesses the personal risk.

In addition to the medical history, the doctor checks the patient's lifestyle. He measures body weight and height, asks the patient questions about his nicotine, alcohol and drug consumption and determines whether he is getting enough exercise. It also records the patient's psychological state.

Physical examination

The questioning is followed by a physical examination. The doctor first examines the chest and listens to the heart, lungs and carotid artery. The doctor typically measures the pulse on the foot. He also examines the posture and inspects the skin. A check of the reflexes provides information about possible damage to the nerves. The function of the sensory organs is also checked.

Blood pressure measurement

A blood pressure measurement is part of the health check. The doctor determines the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. An optimal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg (millimeters of mercury), up to 129/84 the value is still normal. From 140/90 onwards, there is increased blood pressure (hypertension).

You can find more information in the article Measuring blood pressure.

Blood sample (blood lipid levels, fasting blood sugar)

If there is a justified risk based on family history, overweight or high blood pressure, the doctor will take a blood sample during the health check. A laboratory examines the blood and determines the cholesterol levels (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides).

You can read what the values ​​mean in the article Cholesterol values.

In addition to the blood lipid values, the fasting blood sugar level is determined from the blood sample. Fasting blood sugar is below 100 mg / dl in people with a healthy metabolism. If it is higher, this can be an indication of diabetes mellitus.

Vaccination status

At every health check-up, the doctor checks the patient's vaccination status. To do this, he needs the yellow vaccination certificate. If necessary, a booster vaccination is due.

You can find out when which vaccination needs to be refreshed in the vaccination calendar.

The check-up 35

Check-up 35 is the start of the regular health checks. The preventive medical check-up should now be carried out every three years.

In addition, the urine test is added to the health check from 35: The doctor examines a urine sample from the patient with a urine strip for traces of proteins, glucose, red and white blood cells and nitrite. The test provides information about the health of the kidneys, bladder, ureters and urethra.

Men aged 65 and over

From the age of 65, the health check includes a one-time aortic aneurysm screening [Link]. The doctor uses an ultrasound device to examine the blood vessels in the abdomen in order to identify possible bulges at an early stage.

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