What are the 7 types of fractures


from Latin: frangere - to break
Synonyms: broken bone, bone fracture, fractura
English: (bone) fracture

1 definition

Under one fracture one understands a complete or incomplete interruption of the continuity of the bone tissue. It leads to a severing of the bone with the formation of two or more fragments and possibly the loss of the stabilizing function. The corresponding verb is fracture.

2 classification

Fractures can be classified according to the course of the fracture line, the number of bone fragments, the mechanism of the fracture's origin and many other criteria.

2.1 ... according to location

2.2 ... according to the course of the fracture

2.3 ... according to the shape of the fracture gap

2.4 ... according to the number of bone fragments

2.5 ... according to the pathomechanism

2.6 ... according to the position of the fracture ends

In a displaced fracture, the bone fragments are displaced from their normal anatomical position. The fracture dislocation determines, among other things, the stability and resilience of a fracture.

2.7 ... according to the extent of the fracture

  • Complete (complete) fracture
  • Incomplete (incomplete) fracture

In the case of a complete fracture, the cortex of the bone is completely severed, while in the case of an incomplete fracture there is still a connection between the ends of the fracture.

2.8 ... after joint involvement

2.9 ... according to the integrity of the covering soft tissues

In closed fractures, the soft tissues are traumatized, but the soft tissue covering around the fracture is still intact. In open fractures, the soft tissues are severed, the bone is exposed and the fracture gap is contaminated.

3 classifications

In addition to special classifications for individual fracture types (e.g. Pauwels classification, Aitken classification, Weber classification), fractures are grouped according to the AO classification. The extent of the soft tissue injury can be documented using the Tscherne and Oestern classification.

4 special features

Fractures in children and adolescents are different from fractures in adults. Since the bone growth is not yet complete, the bone can give way due to an elastic deformation when force is applied: The bone kinks without the periosteum tearing. One then speaks of a greenwood fracture. Another broken bone with an intact periosteum is the torus fracture.

5 symptoms

The clinical symptoms of a broken bone are called signs of fractures. One distinguishes safe and unsafe Fraktur sign.

5.1 Uncertain signs of fracture

5.2 Safe fracture signs

  • Axial misalignment of the bone (see also: fracture dislocation)
  • Crepitation ("rubbing noises")
  • pathological mobility
  • visible bone fragments with an open fracture

Fractures are extremely painful, although the bone substance has no pain receptors. The pain is mediated by nociceptors in the periosteum and endosteum. Another cause of pain is the tissue tension associated with the bleeding and accompanying soft tissue edema. Involuntary muscle activity trying to stabilize the fracture can make the pain worse.

6 diagnosis

In addition to the clinical examination, the most important diagnostic method is the production of X-rays in several levels.

Complicated fractures with joint involvement and / or multiple fragments can be assessed more precisely using CT images prior to surgical treatment. Under certain circumstances it can be helpful to create a 3D reconstruction from the CT data.

Adjacent ligament or soft tissue structures can be better visualized with an MRI.

7 complications

A fracture is a serious disorder of the body's integrity that can be associated with numerous complications, such as: B .:

In the case of poorly healed fractures, there is no osseous growth through the fracture gap and a pseudarthrosis can develop as a late complication.

8 therapy

The treatment of a fracture depends on many factors, including its extent and location. The exact therapies are therefore discussed under the respective fracture type. Only general principles of fracture management are presented here.

8.1 First aid

In the case of first aid - in addition to checking the vital functions - the most important measure is to immobilize and fixate the affected body part. For the emergency treatment of fractures, inflatable or customizable splints (e.g. SAMĀ®-Splint) can be used.

8.2 Conservative Procedures

8.3 Operational procedures

The operative treatment of fractures is summarized under the term osteosynthesis. The osteosynthesis procedures include: