What pace is agitato
Italian technical terms of music
Since the Italians strongly influenced European music in the 17th century, Italian technical terms have been used in music to this day. It's mostly about the type of presentation: tempo, volume, sound.
A list of tempo labels. The beats per minute (BPM) numbers given are only a general guide. In modern music, one replaces or specifies metronome-Marking the number of BPM (such as ♩ = 120) the tempo designation.
|adagietto||pretty slow, a bit faster than adagio||72-76|
|allegretto||moderately fast, a little slower than allegro||112-120|
|allegrissimo||very fast, faster than allegro||172-176|
|allegro moderato||moderately fast, a little slower than allegro||116-120|
|andante moderato||moderate walking pace, faster than andante||92-112|
|andantino||moderate pace, a bit faster than andante||80-108|
|larghetto||pretty slow and wide, a bit faster than largo||60-66|
|larghissimo||extremely slow, slower than largo||25 and below|
|largo||very slow and wide||40-60|
|prestissimo||extremely fast, faster than presto||200 and above|
|vivace||fast and lively||140-176|
|vivacissimo||very fast and lively, faster than vivace||172-176|
There are also words and signs for tempo changes. The duration of the changes is indicated by dashed lines, for example "rit. _ _ _".
|a piacere||at will, the pace can be determined by the performer|
|a tempo||resume previous pace|
|ritardando||rit., ritard.||gradually slower|
|rubato||no even meter, flexibility in tempo|
|stringendo||gradually faster, literally "tightening"|
The volume is almost always given in abbreviations or characters. The information only relates to relative differences in volume. In contrast to other Italian indications, the indications on dynamics are usually below the staff or between the two staves for the piano.
|piano pianissimo||ppp||as quietly as possible|
|mezzo piano||mp||medium quiet|
|mezzo forte||mf||medium volume|
|forte fortissimo||fff||as loud as possible|
A list of the changes in dynamics. The wedges () are used to show the dynamics changes over more than a few bars, while cresc. and dim. can be used to show changes over a longer passage. The latter can be lengthened with dashed lines to show the duration of the change.
|crescendo||cresc. or||gradually get louder|
|diminuendo||dim. or||gradually become quieter|
|fortepiano||fp||loud, then immediately quieter|
|sforzando, forzando, szforzato||sfz, sf or fz||sudden loud, sudden accent (a note or a chord)|
|rinforzando||rfz or rf||amplified (a note, phrase, or chord)|
These terms make it clear how a passage should be played. For this you have to master or practice certain playing techniques.
|arpeggio||arp.||a broken chord instead of playing all notes at the same time|
|glissando||gliss.||a constant sliding up and down from one note to another|
|legato||Notes that are played softly tied|
|mano destra||m.d.||right hand|
|mano sinistra||m.s.||left hand|
|con sordino||playing with the damper or (on the piano) without the sustain pedal|
|senza sordino||Playing without a damper or (on the piano) with the sustain pedal|
|pizzicato||pizz.||plucked with the finger instead of stroking with a bow|
|portamento||port.||to glide smoothly from one note to another|
|tutti||everyone, whole orchestra, whole ensemble|
|staccato||stacc.||abbreviated and sharply separated tones|
|staccatissimo||staccatiss.||abbreviated and extremely separate tones|
|vibrato||a quick, very small change in pitch|
These technical terms describe feelings or moods that the composer has imagined and that the musician should express through the sound.
|con amore||with love|
|con brio||with soul, with fire|
|con fuoco||with fire|
|con moto||with movement|
A list of the repetitions instructions. The instructions are used as navigations to instruct the performer to repeat a particular passage of the piece.
A list of general technical terms. These terms are mostly used in conjunction with other terms, such as allegro molto (very quickly) and con amore (with love).
|ad libitum||at will (often refers to pace and style)|
|ma non tanto||but not so much|
|ma non troppo||but not too much|
|poco a poco||bit by bit|
|simile||in a similar way|
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