What are maternal and paternal chromosomes

Why does a chicken egg turn into a chicken and a human fertilized egg into a human again? Why do children look like their parents? The secret lies in the genes that are passed on from parents to children. In them it is written down what kind of living being grows up and what it looks like.

Where are these genes?

The genes are located in the cell nucleus. They lie there on long, tangled genes, on the so-called divided. In humans there are 46 DNA threads in each body. For reasons of space (they can be up to 1 m long!), The DNA threads are wrapped around a framework. One calls a DNA thread plus protein support structure.

So humans have 46 chromosomes. Two of them are similar in composition and size, so one also speaks of 23 pairs of chromosomes.

The only exceptions are sperm cells and egg cells.

During fertilization, the father's sperm cell fuses with the mother's egg cell: a new cell with 46 chromosomes (23 pairs of chromosomes) is created. This cell divides, and after many a child will eventually emerge. For each of the chromosome pairs we inherited one of the chromosome partners from the mother and one from the father.

Sometimes the child resembles a little bit the mother, sometimes a little more like the father, but: the newborn offspring is never "Just the mom!" or "All the dad!", because both parents always have a set of chromosomes - and thus both their genes - contributed to the child.