Web services required software skills

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Origin and brief description

A web developer is one Software developerwho specializes in web technologies and programs and / or manages their development for websites or online shops. While websites were technically quite simple in the early years of the World Wide Web and could also be implemented by non-software developers, the field of work has now changed significantly: From the formerly "static" HTML pages, which are essentially the Representation of images and texts have now become extensive and sometimes highly complex, dynamic applications. Examples: online shops, forums, auction platforms, special applications ... This has increased the demands on developers enormously. Today, professional web developers often have to master many disciplines from the full range of software development, with in-depth skills in one or more web-specific Programming and scripting languages (PHP, Java, JavaScript, C # /. Net, Ruby etc.) partly belong to it. In addition to the purely technical knowledge, more and more methodological knowledge is required, e.g. knowledge in the areas of requirements analysis, Software and database architecture, Approaches of agile software development, object-oriented programming or various Test concepts.

Development of demand in the job market 2011-2020

The number of job vacancies for web developers or web developers on the German labor market has risen continuously since the beginning of the last decade and reached its preliminary peak in 2017 with over 2000 advertisements (source: WE labor market analyzes 2011-2020). In the following years 2018 and 2019, demand fell significantly and in 2019 was back at the level of 2013. One possible cause: The increasingly complex possibilities in the field of web technologies, web programming languages ​​and frameworks have led to a strong increase in recent years Diversification of the requirement profiles in the field of web development: In addition to the web developer "all-rounder", specialists have also been increasingly becoming specialists, for example for Javascript and PHP development wanted, so that correspondingly specialized job profiles z. B. for Javascript and PHP developer have established. As a result, web developers are increasingly relieved of sub-tasks by specialists, so that they can concentrate more on the overall conception and coordination and take on corresponding higher-level tasks. In addition, the requirements in the field of web development have become so complex that they can no longer only be implemented by individual all-rounders, but increasingly in web development teams made up of interdisciplinary web developers and specialists for individual web programming and scripting languages.

use

Next Web developer, web developer or web developer are also the names Web programmer, Developer web or Online developer common.

In the English-speaking world, the term Web Developer sometimes even broader and sometimes includes designers, concept developers or business experts.

Web developer / web developer is not a legally protected professional title in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. This means that every person can legally use the term as a job title and is often used in job advertisements, for example.

However, anyone who uses the term in professional life (e.g. for applications or contracts) without having the appropriate qualifications (verifiable professional experience, certificates, etc.) may be violating certain laws, in Germany e.g. the law against unfair competition (UWG) in the sense of misleading advertising. Under certain circumstances, the use of the job title "Web Developer / Web Developer" can also constitute a criminal offense (in Germany according to Section 263 StGB), e.g. in the form of employment fraud.

Fields of work and activity

Web developers sometimes work as freelancers or self-employed, but more often as employees in Internet, media, full-service agencies or IT departments of larger organizations (companies, associations, public service). Even in classic software houses, which used to focus exclusively on offline development, e.g. For example, if you were specialized in desktop software, web developers are now also working, as the offline and online world is growing closer and closer together.

When it comes to developing web services or web APIs, pure web developer teams are not uncommon. However, they often work in interdisciplinary teams consisting of developers, designers, marketing experts, web business strategists, project managers, etc.

The tasks of the web developer typically include:

  • Perform the requirements analysis
  • Development of proposed solutions and implementation scenarios (feasibility of requirements, alternative implementation options)
  • Effort estimates for requirement specifications including the pros and cons of different implementation variants
  • As a member of interdisciplinary implementation teams in agile environments such as B. Scrum, web developers make a significant contribution to compliance with quality standards when implementing requirements.
  • Conception of software design and architecture
  • Design and installation of the tool chain
  • Conception of the database design
  • Implementation of the productive code (server and / or client code)
  • Execution of manual and automated tests e.g. B. on a staging server
  • Error handling and correction, as well as code optimizations and / or updates
  • Evaluation of new technical possibilities such as B. new functions of programming languages, developer tools, frameworks and code libraries
  • Maintenance and operation of the software installations

Specializations

In the area of ​​web development, a trend towards specialization can be seen that is largely based on classic software development. There are e.g.

  • Architects
  • programmer
  • Database specialists
  • Framework specialists
  • Technical team and project manager

A special feature in the area of ​​web development is the division into

  • Frontend / Client Developer and
  • Backend / server developer

However, it is also not uncommon for an experienced developer to master several of these roles (or even all of them as a “full stack developer”), and job advertisements also demand the same.

Competencies

technical skills

There are certain in the technical sector Basic knowledgethat every web developer should master:

  • HTML (if possible all versions including HTML5, XHTML)
  • CSS (if possible all versions including CSS3)
  • XML and XSLT
  • JSON
  • JavaScript / AJAX
  • PHP5 and PHP7
  • Principles of object-oriented programming (OOP)

Depending on the focus of the work, further knowledge is then required:

Frontend developer:

  • Basic knowledge of web design
  • Responsive design
  • Programming dynamic websites with JavaScript and AJAX
  • Working with the JavaScript DOM API
  • Client-side frameworks and libraries, e.g. Prototype, AngularJS, ReactJS, UIkit, jQuery, YAML, Bootstrap and many more.
  • Server-side frameworks and libraries, e.g. B. PHP-Symfony, PHP-Laravel, Cake-PHP etc.

Backend developer:

  • Understanding of the HTTP and HTTPS protocol as well as the REST principle
  • Theory and concepts of relational databases including basic knowledge of the special features of database systems such as B. Oracle, PostGres, Microsoft SQL and MySQL
  • Mastery of the SQL language, often also XML, JSON
  • Server-side programming languages: e.g. Ruby, PHP, Java, C #, server-side JavaScript such as Node.js
  • Server-side frameworks: e.g. Ruby on Rails, PHP-Symfony, Zend Framework, Spring. C # /. NET et al.

Competencies

The requirements for a web developer go beyond pure programming; many activities require solid methodological knowledge (cf. section “Fields of activity”).

Soft skills

Web development is teamwork; the "programmer" in the quiet little room is history. Developers work with a wide variety of subject matter experts and departments; in small projects or companies, they often have contact with customers. So the so-called soft skills are now also of central importance for developers.

  • Communication skills: Web developers must be able to make complex (technical) relationships understandable for the non-developers in their team. You have to present a situation in a structured way and be able to communicate it clearly to the outside world.
  • Good comprehension and lifelong learning: The further development of technologies on the Internet is extremely dynamic. Web developers must therefore - like other professional groups in the IT sector - be prepared to constantly learn and develop.
  • Load capacity: Web developers are often pressed for time and need a good level of resilience. In addition, they have to provide so-called "negative feedback" such as B. be able to handle error messages, complaints about faulty or missing functionalities, etc.

requirements

People who want to train as a web developer or web developer should meet the following requirements:

School requirements

University entrance qualification, technical college entrance qualification or at least an intermediate educational qualification

English skills

Relevant specialist literature and documentation are often only available in English or are more complete and up-to-date compared to German translations. Interested parties must therefore have a solid knowledge of English and be able to read and understand English texts from the technical field. Since more and more development teams are composed internationally, web developers should also be able to communicate well verbally and in writing in English.

Knowledge of mathematics and computer science

Since developers mainly have to think logically and abstractly, a good ability to abstract and a good knowledge of mathematics are essential. Especially if you are responsible for the development of more complex algorithms and architectures, solid computer science knowledge is also part of the job description.

Initial and continuing education

Apprenticeship as IT specialist in application development

In Germany, the apprenticeship “IT specialist in application development” partially prepares for a job as a web developer, provided the web-relevant skills are actually taught at the cutting edge of technology.

courses

There are a large number of university and technical college courses (computer science, media informatics, applied computer science, etc.) that prepare more or less for a job as a web developer or web developer, provided that current, web-relevant skills are actually conveyed in these courses whatever has to be checked on a case-by-case basis. Specialization in, for example, certain programming techniques, languages ​​or frameworks usually only takes place in later professional life and is sometimes acquired self-taught ("on-the-job training") and / or through special IT intensive seminars.

Further education and certificates

Further training to become a web developer is offered by numerous educational institutions.

Webmasters Europe e.V. offers the qualification to become a web developer as part of a diploma course that provides comprehensive professional skills in theory and practice. Graduation: Diploma in Web Engineering. The course is offered by some authorized training centers of Webmasters Europe e.V. In addition to the content of the two Web Developer modules, the course also provides Diploma in Web Engineering the Webmasters Distance Academy also has knowledge of Website conception, Web design, online marketing and Project management. The WE curriculum thus takes account of the fact that web development, as shown above, is teamwork and requires a qualified view of the bigger picture.

Due to the increasing specialization of web developers in, for example, individual web programming languages ​​or frameworks, Webmasters Europe e. V. also the certificationsWE Certified Web Developer (JavaScript) and WE Certified Web Developer (PHP / Laravel / MYSQL) with which web developers can expand and prove their relevant subject-specific competencies. Corresponding online correspondence courses can be completed at the Webmasters Fernakademie Nuremberg, among others: Further training to become a certified Javascript developer and further training to become a certified PHP and Laravel developer.

Career paths

There are various professional development paths for web developers that can be followed depending on the individual inclination. In this professional environment in particular, there is a particularly high level of development dynamics due to the constantly changing requirements and technical progress. As in many other IT professions, practical experience is most important for professional advancement for web developers: the more projects with different requirements and framework conditions are successfully implemented and the better the relevant specialist knowledge is deepened, the better the opportunities for advancement. A typical path is the development from junior web developer to senior web developer, which is usually possible at the earliest after five years (sometimes even after 7-8 years) of intensive project experience in development teams. Another opportunity for advancement is the assumption of areas of responsibility. Examples:

  • Technical project and / or team leader: Coordination and technical management of project-related development teams, which are put together as required.
  • In the Scrum environment e.g. B. Promotion to Product Owner or Scrum Master
  • Head of department z. B. Chief Web Developer or Head of Web Development: there are many different terms here. This is based on a) leadership skills based on professional experience and b) assuming disciplinary and budgetary responsibility for the department. Both require senior status.
  • Focus and specialization on subject areas and tasks: e.g. B. Framework Specialist, PHP Laravel Specialist, Interface Expert etc .. The focus here is always on the extraordinary expertise and the very high level of professional security and efficiency, which justify a corresponding promotion and salary increase. A little above average knowledge is not enough. This is why these special skills are very often acquired through special extra-occupational seminars and certifications, which in many cases are also financed or at least partly financed by employers.